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What does refined mean in regards to food?
Foods that have undergone a process that change or remove various components of the original food. This sometimes means that nutrients have been removed in the process.
What are the different parts of a grain and what nutrients do they provide?
Endosperm - Starch
Germ - fiber, oil, vit. E, protein, B vitamins
Bran - fiber, some vitamins
What are simple carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates known as sugars that include monosacharides ( one molecule ) and ( disacharides ).
The most important carbohydrate fuel for the body, produced in plants via photosynthesis. Rarely found as a monosacharide in food, it's usually part of a disacharide or starch.
Rarely found in nature by itself, it's usually part of Lactose.
found in fruits and vegetables and honey.
Most popular sweetener in US since it is cheaper than table sugar, derived from corn.
Glucose + Fructose
Glucose + Galactose
Glucose + Glucose.
What are oligosacharides?
Short chains of 3 to 10 monosacharides.
What are polysacharides?
Carbohydrates containing many monosacharides linked together.
What is glycogen?
The storage form of carbohydrates in animals. Polysacharide made up of highly branched chains of glucose. It is stored in the muscles and liver.
Glycogen stored in muscles is used as energy for physical activity.
Glycogen stored in the liver is released as glucose when the body needs glucose.
What is starch?
The storage form of carbohydrates in plants. Made up of amylose ( long, straight chains of glucose ) and amylopectin ( branched chains of glucose ).
Certain complex carbohydrates and lignins ( not carbos but classified as fiber anyway ) found in plants. Fiber is not digestible.
What is dietary fiber?
Fiber that is intact in plants, like when you eat, I don't know... a pear.
What is functional fiber?
Fiber that has been seperated from plants.
Dietary and functional fiber combined.
What are soluble fibers?
Fibers that can be digested by bacteria in large intestine resulting in gas and short chain fatty acids. Small quantities of these fatty acids can be absorbed.
What are insoluble fibers?
Fiber that cannot be broken down in large intestine and cannot be absorbed.
How are carbohydrates digested?
Starch ( a carbohydrate ) is broken down in the mouth by amylase into smaller polysacharides.
Polysacharides are not broken down in the stomach.
In small intestine starch digestion resumes and polysacharides are broken down into di, mono, poly, and oligosaccharides.
Fiber and other undigestible carbohydrates are partially broken down by bacteria in large intestine.
- Stimulate GI motility ( gets stuff moving more easily )
- Promote healthy microflora ( provide microflora a food source )
- Slow nutrient absorption.
- Increase intestinal gas.
What is hypoglycemia?
Not enough sugar in the blood.
< 40 - 50 mg/mL blood
What is glycemic response?
The glycemic response of a food is a rating of how fast sugar gets into the blood, how high blood sugar rises and how long it stays in the blood.
- >70 = high glycemic
- <50 = low glycemic
What is glycemic load?
Measurment of glycemic response of foods.
Grams of food multiplied by glycemic index ( as a percent- gi 50 = .5 ? )
What is insulin, what does it do?
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that tells cells in the body to open up and let glucose in. Not enough insulin, possibly due to diabetes, means glucose does not get into cells where it's needed.
What is glucagon?
Hormone secreted by pancreas that tells the liver to break down glycogen ( the stored form of glucode ) into glucose.
Type 1 diabetes...
Pancreas is not making insulin or, not making enough insulin.
Type 2 diabetes...
Insulin resistance diabetes - cells of the body do not respond to insulin telling them to open up and let glucose in.