Brain and Behavior

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Brain and Behavior
2010-04-08 13:52:48
Anatomy of the Eye and Retina

Exam II
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  1. Name the two main components of the outer supportive layer of the eye.
    Cornea and sclera
  2. Name the layers of the cornea.
    • Epithelium
    • Bowmans Membrane
    • Stroma
    • Descemets Membrane
    • Endothelium
  3. What are the three main components of the middle layer of the eye?
    • choroid
    • cilliary body
    • iris
  4. The sphinctor pupillae muscle is innervated by the _________ nerves in the ____________ ganglion.
    • parasympathetic
    • cilliary

  5. What part of the eye is this?
    Identify the layers
    • This is the cornea
  6. The contraction of the ciliary muscle cause the ______ to _________.
    • suspensory ligament
    • relax
  7. The anterior surface of the eye is made up of __________ and _________.
    fibroblasts and melanocytes
  8. The myoepithelial cells of of the ________ are responsible for ______ of the _________.
    • iris
    • dilation
    • pupil
  9. The dilator pupillae is innervated by ___________ neurons.
  10. The posterior surface of the iris is a two layered epithelium. The basal surface contains___and ___ while the posterior surface contains______.
    • Basal surface: myoepithelial cells and the dilator pupillae
    • Posterior: pigmented epithelium and the sphinctor pupillae
  11. The sphinctor pupillae is located where?
    The posterior layer of the iris.
  12. The lens is a biconvex structure with an outer ______ layer and an inner core of _______. The oldest fibers will be found in the ___________ of the lens.
    • epithelial
    • fibers
    • center
  13. What is contained within a capsule and suspended by zonule fibers?
    The lens
  14. Cataracts occurs due to ?
    The lens losing its elasticity
  15. Accomadation allows us to focus on _____ objects by contracting the ____________ and thus relaxing the _______. This allows the lens to become more__________.
    • near
    • ciliary muscle
    • suspensory ligament
    • rounded
  16. What must occur in order for accomadation to take place?
    the ciliary muscle, sphinctor pupillae and medial rectus muscles must relax.
  17. Name the 3 chambers of the eye
    anterior, posterior, and the vitreous body
  18. What chamber is located anterior to the iris?
    anterior chamber
  19. What chamber is located between the iris and the vitreous body?
    The posterior chamber
  20. The aqueous humor is produced by the _____ of the ______.
    • epithelium
    • ciliary processes
  21. Glaucoma is caused by
    oversecretion of the aqueous humor or blockage of the flow of the aqueous humor
  22. What two spaces does the aq. humor filter through at the sclerocorneal junctions?
    • the Spaces of Fontana
    • Canal of Schlemm
  23. The inner layer of the eye consists of ....
    • pigmented retina
    • neural retina
  24. The pigmented retina contains _____________ which seperates _____ from _____. The function of the pigmented retina is to__________.
    • a. Bruch’s Membrane separates the pigmented epithelium and the choroid.
    • b. The pigmented epithelium absorbs light rays and prevents distracting
    • backscatter onto the retina.
  25. Apical cytoplasmic extensions of the ____________, with lysosomes, envelop the rod and cone outer segments. This phagocytic action removes degenerating portions of rod and cone segments (in a circadian rhythm).
    pigmented retina
  26. Loss of phagocytic action and build-up of debris results in ??
    retinitis pigmentosa.
  27. The neural retina contains the receptors and neurons for the transduction of ____________ signals into ___________signals.
    • The neural retina contains the receptors and neurons for
    • transduction of light signals into electrochemical signals.
  28. The neural retina contains what 3 things?
    • 1) ROD and CONE cells
    • 2) The bipolar neurons
    • 3) The ganglion cells
  29. 1) ROD and CONE cells which are the photoreceptor cells which synapse on _________. 2) The bipolar neurons are the ______whose axons synapse on ___ cells. 3) The ganglion cells are ____whose axons reach the inner surface of the retina, then pass to the optic disk where they penetrate the ___ to form the optic nerve.
    1) ROD and CONE cells which are the photoreceptor cells which synapse on BIPOLAR neurons. 2) The bipolar neurons are the first order neurons whose axons synapse on GANGLION cells. 3) The ganglion cells are second order neurons whose axons reach the inner surface of the retina, then pass to the optic disk where they penetrate the LAMINA CRIBROSA to form the optic nerve.
  30. RODS: Specialized for ___ . Ten million ___rods than cones. They are found everywhere except in the _____.
    • Night vision
    • more
    • fovea
  31. Rods: Outer segment has ___(discs) that contain visually sensitive pigments and are free floating, being pinched off from other membranes. The inner segment has mitochondria and other normal organelles where __ are synthesized.
    • flattened vesicles
    • pigments
  32. CONES: Specialized for ____and ____. Contain one of three visual pigments (red, green, blue)
    • high acuity
    • color vision
  33. Cones: Overall structure is similar to rods. Outer segment is __shaped. Discs in the outer segment are all ___. Discs are not renewed regularly as in rods, but ____ are.
    • cone
    • connected
    • pigments
  34. RODS and CONES synapse with __ and ____ cells.
    bipolar and horizontal
  35. BIPOLAR CELLS: Input from ___. Output to retinal ___cells.
    • rods and cones
    • ganglion
  36. RETINAL GANGLION CELLS: Form the ganglion cell layer. Their axons form the axonal layer. Their axons, which are __, merge and leave the retina at the __. They then pass through the __where they are ____ and form the ___.
    • unmyelinated
    • optic disc
    • lamina cribrosa
    • myelinated
    • optic nerve
  37. ______ cells have processes which are horizontally oriented in layers where rod/cone cells synapse with bipolar cells.
  38. ____ cells have processes which are are horizontally oriented in layers where bipolar cells synapse with ganglion cells.
  39. _____ cells are specialized glial cells within the retina and they provide a structural framework. They are oriented radially, from the rods and cones to the axonal layer of the retinal ganglion cells.
    Muller glial
  40. _______ end feet form the outer and inner limiting membranes (areas of tight junctions restricting fluid flow.)
    muller glial
  41. Branches of the ______ artery supply the eye. This artey gives rise to ____ and ___ arteries.
    • opthalmic
    • ciliary
    • central retinal
  42. The ___ supply all of the nonneural structures of the eye.
    ciliary arteries
  43. The short posterior ciliary arteries supply the ___, the ____, and the ____, whereas the long posterior and anterior ciliary arteries supply the ___, ___, and _____.
    • sclera
    • choroid
    • cilliary processes

    • Sclera
    • ciliary body
    • conjunctiva
  44. The primary arterial supply to the retina is the ______.
    central retinal artery
  45. The ______ divide into superior and inferior branches, each of which has a medial (nasal) and lateral (temporal) branch. These branches are end arteries which supply all layers of the ______except for the outer nuclear layer.
    • central retinal arteries
    • neural retina
  46. The outer nuclear layer is supplied by a _____ derived from posterior ciliary arteries.
    choroidocapillary plexus
  47. _____ contains the fovea centralis, which is the area specialized for greatest visual acuity.
    Macula lutea
  48. Only _____ exist in the fovea. All other cell layers are pushed aside so that light rays hit directly onto the photoreceptor cells.
  49. ______ reflexes keep the fovea oriented on the object of interest.
    Extraocular muscle
  50. This is the structure where the central retinal artery enters the interior of the eye and the ganglion cell axons exit from the interior (the blind spot of the eye).
    Optic disk