330 4.1 Ch 6

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330 4.1 Ch 6
2012-02-16 11:22:07
Child Learning Strategies

Child Learning Strategies
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  1. Event based knowledge
    • sequences of events/routines
    • ex) world knowledge
    • uses ideas of time, causality, goal orientation
    • uses knowledge to form scripts predictable of interaction
  2. Taxonomic knowledge
    • categories/classes of hierarchically organized information
    • this is the way new words are learned
  3. relationship btw receptive and expressive language
    • not clear
    • dynamic relationship changing with developmental level and different aspects of language
    • infant perception exceeds production (50 words)
    • child uses words that they dont comprehend
  4. do what you usually do
    • what do you usually do with a ball?
    • event knowledge is important
  5. probable event strategy
    based on event knowledge what would prabably be done
  6. What are infants/toddlers assuming about language
    • reference principle
    • extendibility principle
    • whole object principle
    • categorical assumption
    • novel/nameless assumption
    • conventionality assumption
  7. reference principle
    • words actually stand for entities
    • each entity has its own unique referent/word
    • (mutual exclusivity assumption)
    • words stand for things
  8. extendibility principle
    • there can be shared attribute of referent
    • this help child categorize things
    • ex) my cup can be called cup but there are also similar things that we can call cup
  9. whole object principle
    • words don't refer to just part of something
    • this cooresponds to the basic object level of naming
    • ex) mom will call it a dog and not a canine or a poodle
  10. categorical assumption
    • one can call a similar thing by the same label
    • ex0 the word cup can be used beyond the extendibility principle to all things that hold liquid, not just a limited group
  11. novel/nameless assumption
    • only takes a few introductions for the child to learn the name
    • fast mapping
  12. conventionality assumption
    • meanings will be consistent by all who use them in all circumstances one says it
    • everyone calls it the same thing
  13. evocative utterances
    child names something anticipating adult will confirm/negate that name
  14. hypothesis testing
    • similar to evocative utterances but more explicit
    • actual question asking via intonation or 'what?' wassat?
  15. selective imitation
    • more miture language than the child usually does on his own
    • particularly helpful for vocabulary growth if the child is at the one word stage
    • this technique decreases as language level gets more complex
    • appears to be based around daily routines
  16. formula use
    • anything that is a chunk of language most likely learned by rote and used as an unanalyzed whole is a formula
    • ex) howyadoing?
  17. learning by rote
    learning things in chunks believing that these things are all one letter or word though they are really many
  18. bootstrapping
    • preschoolers use a lot
    • use what you already know about language to help learn new forms
    • semantic and syntactic bootstrapping
    • syntactic bootstrapping starts with the s + v + o sentence type
  19. pay attention to how/where semantic distinctions are marked
    • ends of words
    • systematically modify phonological forms
    • order of words
    • do not interrupt/rearrange units
    • mark underlying semantic relations overtly/clearly
    • avoid exceptions
    • grammar needs to make semantic sense
  20. other factors that contribute
    • SES
    • intellect
    • family structure
    • birth order
    • learning style of child
    • maternal (caregiver) stimulation