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Functional groups are __________.
groups of atoms in organic molecules that can participate in certain types of chemical reactions
In chemical reactions, the molecules that take part in the reaction are called reactants. Conversely, molecules produced by a chemical reaction are called products.
During the process of polymerization (synthesis of biological
polymers), water is a __________, and the reaction is consequently
called a __________ reaction.
Carbohydrates are a class of biological molecules that include __________.
- sugars and polymers of sugars
- ring-shaped molecules that are soluble in water
- Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
- components of DNA and RNA
The general class of biological molecules that contains large, nonpolar regions that make these molecules insoluble in water is called __________.
Saturated fats __________.
- have no double covalent bonds
- are solid at room temperature
- contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible
Phospholipids contain a "head group" that is _________ and two fatty acid "tails" that are __________.
Proteins are polymers of __________.
Protein functions in cells include __________.
- storage and defense
- transport and defensecatalysis of biochemical reactions
- structure and movement
A nucleotide is composed of __________.
a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base
Imagine that you see a diagram of molecular structures in which the atoms are shown as dots and covalent bonds are
shown as lines between the dots. The molecules in the diagram have a variety of complex shapes, including long chains, branched chains, rings, and combinations of chains and rings. What type of molecules are these and what is the key atom in them?
The complex structures of these molecules indicate that they are organic molecules and, therefore, contain carbon.
At the gym one day, you notice a new "Energy Bar" being sold that advertises quick energy for your workout. To impress you further, it is claimed this bar contains only carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms. What kind of biological molecule(s) would you be eating if you ate an "Energy Bar"?
carbohydrates and lipids
A scientist is studying the metabolism of proteins in yeast and wants to follow the formation of proteins from the earliest possible point. In her experiment, she will feed the yeast radioactive nutrients and follow the fate of the radioactivity in the cells. Which of the following atoms will allow her to exclusively follow proteins in the cell?
How are large organic molecules (macromolecules) synthesized?
by a dehydration reaction utilizing monomers
- can function as a source of energy or can function as an extremely durable structural material,
- depending upon the specific nature of their chemical bonds between subunits (monomers)
- can exist as monomers (monosaccharides), dimers (disaccharides), and polymers (polysaccharides)
- have the general chemical formula of (CH2O)n
A cell membrane is primarily composed of __________.
Proteins are macromolecules that can perform many
different functions within an organism. This diversity of function for this macromolecule is due to the unique nature of one of its four functional groups that is bound to a central carbon atom. Which functional group is responsible for the wide diversity of function attributed to proteins?
the R group
The quaternary level of protein structure __________.
refers to a functional (biologically active) complex of two or more three-dimensional proteins (e.g., hemoglobin)
are found in nucleic acids, intracellular messenger molecules, and high-energy molecules
All of the following are polysaccharides except _________
glucose, Glucose is a monosaccharide
You have identified a protein that is unable to form disulfide bridges. This would affect which of the following?
tertiary structure of the protein
All of the following are proteins except __________.
cholesterol, Cholesterol is a lipid
What types of biological molecules transport fat molecules through the human bloodstream?
Which of the following is not found in DNA?
Individual subunits of large organic molecules are called __________.
A carbohydrate consisting of just one sugar molecule is called a __________.
monosaccharide, The term means "single sugar."
When two or more single sugars are linked together, they form a __________.
polysaccharide, means "many sugars.
Oils, fats, and waxes are similar in that they all contain one or more __________.
Proteins are polymers of __________.
amino acids, These consist of an amino group and a carboxyl group.
The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a protein, while the __________ is the three-dimensional appearance of a protein.
Correctly identify the carbohydrate molecules below.
- A sucrose
- B glucose
- C fructose
Identify the levels of protein structure as depicted below.
- A primary structure (amino acid sequence)
- B secondary structure (helix)
- C tertiary structure (folded individual peptide)
- D quaternary structure (aggregation of two or more peptides)
Identify each of the following functional groups.
- A hydroxyl group
- B carboxyl group
- C amino group
- D phosphate group
- E methyl group
Identify the type of reaction indicated below. Also identify the molecules involved.
- A dehydration synthesis
- B monosaccharide
- C disaccharide
Label the portions of the molecule below.
- A peptide
- B hydrogen bond
- C pleated sheet
- D primary structure
Which of the following is not a function of polysaccharides
storage of hereditary information
Characteristics of carbon that contribute to its ability to
form an immense diversity of organic molecules include its
- tendency to form covalent bonds
- ability to bond with up to four other atoms
- capacity to form single and double bonds
- ability to bond together to form extensive, branched
- or unbranched carbon skeletons
Foods that are high in fiber are most likely to be derived
Proteins differ from one another because
the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protein to protein
Which, if any, of the following choices does not properly pair an organic compound with one of its building blocks (subunits)?
Which of the following statements about lipids is false?
The body doesn’t need any cholesterol.