cell biology part 2

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cell biology part 2
2012-02-16 23:26:45

second half of lecture
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  1. Nucleus
    -control center of activities

    -DNA is duplicated within

    -mRNA moves in and out of the nucleus during synthesis

    -houses DNA (chromosomes)
  2. Nucleolus
    • produces ribosomes
    • *they move out of nucleus via nuclear pores to rough ER
  3. Ribosomes
    -site of protein synthesis

    - exists attached to the rough ER or floating freely in the cytoplasm

    -consists of 70 proteins and 4 strands of RNA
  4. Endoplasmic reticulum
    -an extensive network of membranes that moves proteins and other substances through the cell

    -an extension of nuclear membrane
  5. Smooth ER
    has various functions including making lipids and breaking down toxic substances
  6. Golgi apparatus
    -proteins that are synthesized by the ribosomes cross through the ER then transported via vesicles to golgi

    -lylosomes, peroxisomes, amd secretory vesicles are packaged here
  7. Secretory vesicles
    are small membrane bound sacs that are used by the cell to transport proteins inside the cell or to the cells surface for release
  8. Peroxisomes
    membrane sacks containing enzymes used for metabolism
  9. Lysosomes
    -small organelles that contain the enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion

    -suicide sacks
  10. Mitochondria
    -power center of the cell

    - they are descendants of primitive prokaryotes

    - contain DNA and ribosomes
  11. (Mitochondria) Cristae
    it contains enzymes which combine sugars with oxygen to produce ATP
  12. Similarities between animal and plant cells
    - Nucleus, cytosol, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, golgi, mitochondria, nucleolus, ribosomes, ER(2), and vesicles
  13. Animal cells differ by...
    lylosomes and centrioles
  14. Plant cells differ by...
    cell wall, plastids, and a large central vacuole
  15. know the parts!
  16. Cell wall
    -consists of a mixture of proteins and carbs, cellulose and lignin

    -provides support. Barrier
  17. Cell VAcuole
    -contains 90-98 percent of water

    -place for storage of nutrients and waste

    -plays roles in intracellular digestion and release of cellular waste products
  18. Pigments of photosynthesis
    -plants absorb the red and blue wavelengths.

    -plants scatter green light giving them their appearence

    -phtosynthesis occurs in leaf
  19. 2 stages of photosynthesis
    -light dependent stage and light independent stage
  20. (photosynthesis) Light-dependent stage
    water is split and the electrons stripped then boosted in energy by the energy of the sun. Then used to reduce NADP+
  21. (photosynthesis) Light independent stage
    electrons are carried by NADPH and used to convert CO2 into sugar