Cardio Test 3 Ch. 28
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What is the most common symptom of acute bronchitis?
What diagnostic test can be done to differentiate between bronchitis and pneumonia?
What would a chest x-ray show that would indicate the pt has bronchitis and not pneumonia?
absence of consolidation or infiltrates
What type of bronchitis is seen in COPD patients?
acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
If bronchitis is due to influenza, within what time frame can treatment be started with antivirals?
within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms
What may cause depressed cough and epiglottal reflexes that might allow aspiration of oropharyngeal contents into the lungs, leading to pneumonia?
Decreased level of consciousness
Why would tracheal intubation lead to the development of pneumonia?
it interferes with the normal cough reflex and the mucociliary mechanism, as well as bypasses the upper airways where filtration and humidification of air normally take place.
Air polllution, cigarette smoking, viral upper respiratory infections (URI's) and normal changes that occur with aging can all impair what mechanism that can result in the development of pneumonia?
What diseases are associated with an increased frequency of gram-negative bacilli in the oropharynx therefore altering the normal flora and increasing the patients risk for pneumonia?
leukemia, alcoholism, and diabetes mellitus as well as prolonged antibiotic use for an infection elsewhere in the body.
What are the 3 methods used by organisms to reach the lung and cause pneumonia?
Aspiration of normal flora from the nasopharynx or oropharynx
Inhalation of microbes present in the air such as mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Hematogenous spread from a primary infection elsewhere int he body such as Staph Aureus.
What does it mean when something is empirically treated?
Treatment is begun before the pathogen is detected
Pt presents with bronchial breath sounds, crackles, dullness to percussion, and increased fremitus, you know that this is pulmonary consolidation, a symptom of?
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