Card Set Information
Is chloramphenicol (CAP) static or cidal?
static. (cidal in high doses) do not use with penicillins or cephalosporins
Is chloramphenicol useful in treating infections of the CNS, prostate, and globe of the eye?
How is chloramphenicol excreted?
liver metabolism - by conjugation using glucuronic acid, metabolites excreted in urine
What common anticonvulsant drug completes with chloramphenicol for the specific liver enzymes that metabolizes them both?
If phenobarbital is given with chloramphenicol to patient, (both for the first time), do the blood levels of each drug decrease at a faster or slower rate than usual?
slower - toxicity may result
Can we use chloramphenicol in food-producing animals? Why or why not?
no. CAP residues in human food can cause fatal suppression of human bone marrow - aplastic anemia
What drug is related to and similar to chloramphenicol, is approved for use in cattle, and is not toxic to human bone marrow?
Are lincosamides static or cidal?
either, depending on dose
Are lincosamides good for bone infections?
Which lincosamides are used more in livestock?
lincomycin - Lincocin
pirlimycin - Pirsue
Which lincosamide is used most in small animals?
clindamycin - Antirobe
Clindamycin - Antirobe is especially known for treating what types of infections?
some anaerobic infections
What 3 drug types should not be used together due to competitive inhibition (all bind to the same site on the bacteria)?
Are macrolides static or cidal?
static. may be cidal if high dose
Why are macrolides used PO instead of IM?
IM is painful
Are macrolides useful in treating infections of prostate?
Are macrolides useful in treating infections of the CNS?
What are some common side effects caused by administration of macrolides in small animals?
GI signs - vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia
Why should you avoid use of macrolides in ruminants and adult horses?
causes severe diarrhea, may be fatal
List 2 specific macrolides
tylosin - Tylan
What is the earliest developed group of antimicrobial drugs?
What is the mechanism of action of sulfonamides?
interfere with folic acid synthesis of bacteria
Are sulfonamides static or cidal?
Are potential sulfonamides static or cidal?
What is "potentiation" of a drug?
adding a substance to the drug to make it more effective
What specific substances are added to sulfonamides to potentiate them?
What is the mechanism of action of trimethoprim and ormetoprim?
they interfere with bacterial folic acid synthesis at a different point than the sulfonamides do
In general, are sulfonamides broad spectrum or narrow spectrum?
Can sulfonamides enter the prostate?
Should use of sulfonamides bea voided in patients with liver or kidney failure?
Why is it important to keep a patient on sulfonamides well hydrated?
to prevent crystal formation in the kidneys - causes damage
What 2 things can you do to prevent crystal formation in the kidneys of a patient taking sulfonamides?
keep well hydrated, alkalinize urine
List other problems that can occur in a patient taking sulfonamides.
GI signs - vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia
allergic reactions - skin problems
KCS - keratoconjunctivitis sicca
bone marrow suppression
Are sulfonamides inactivated by pus and cellular debris? Why?
yes - bacteria can get folic acid from pus and cellular debris
What is sulfasalazine broken down into in the intestines? What is sulfasalazine used for? Can it cause problems in cats? Why?
sulfapyridine + aminoalicylic acid.
used to treat inflammatory bowel problems
yes, it can cause problems in cats due to the salicylate compound - related to aspirin - cats metabolize very slowly, toxic levels can occur
List 2 specific commonly used potentiated sulfonamides.
sulfadiazine + trimethoprim - Tribrissen, Ditrim
sulfadimethoxine + ormetoprim - Primor
List a specific sulfonamide commonly used to treat coccidiosis.
sulfadimethoxine - Albon
What drug is commonly used to treat giardiasis?
What other type of condition is metronidazole used to treat?
anaerobic enteric infections
What does "teratogenic" mean?
causes birth defects
Is metronidazole teratogenic?
What antimicrobial drug is used to treat Corynebacterium (Rhodococcus) infections in young foals?
What is rifampin's peculiar side effect?
turns urine, tears, sweat, and saliva reddish - orange
What is the difference between systemic and topical fungal infections?
systemic fungal infections affect the interior of the body - lungs, liver, CNS, blood - and are very serious
topical fungal infections - dermatophytoses or ringworm - affect the skin and are usually more annoying than dangerous
Which is the most nephrotoxic antifungal medication? Is it used for systemic or topical fungal infections?
amphotericin B - used for systemic infections
How is the antifungal drug nystatin commonly used?
in fungal infections (Candidiasis) in the crops of birds - PO.
in topical combinations
List 5 imidazole derivative antifungal drugs.
What are the imidazole derivatives use for?
topical, deep, or systemic mycoses, or fungal infections
Do the imidazole derivatives "kick in" immediately?
no - they take 5 - 10 days to become fungicidal after the beginning of administration to the patient
How is ketoconazole used?
topically and PO for fungal infections
What is ketoconazole's peculiar feature, and list its advantages and disadvantages
since it inhibits corticol formation, it has been used to treat Cushing's disease.
since it inhibits testosterone formation, it should be avoided in breeding males
Is ketoconazole teratogenic?
What is miconazole used for? What is its human label name?
dermatophytes and Candida. Monistat
What is grieseofulvin used for?
dermatophytosis - ringworm
What is the difference between microsize and ultramicrosize griseofulvin?
the size of the particles making up the tablet. ultramicroszie is absorbed better by the patient.
What can we do to improve the absorption of PO griseofulvin?
administer it with some fat - butter is good
Is griseofulvin teratogenic?
How long does it take for griseofulvin to cure ringworm? Does the ringworm start improving immediately after medication is started?
about 6 weeks
no - ringworm usually looks worse before it starts to look better, due to loss of previously damaged hair
List 1 topical antiviral drug. What is it used for?
idoxuridine - is used topically in ophthalmic ointment, to treat herpesvirus infection
List 2 systemic antiviral drugs
AZT - azidothymidine
alpha - interferon
List 3 drugs discussed in the antimicrobial section that are teratogenic
What 2 drugs discussed in the antibacterial section are not active in pus and cellular debris?
What 2 drugs discussed in the antibacterial section will diffuse into the CNS? Which is best?
chloramphenicol is best
What 3 drugs discussed int he antibacterial section will diffuse into the globe of the eye?
What 4 drugs discussed in the antibacterial section will diffuse into the prostate?
It is important to keep the patient well hydrated to prevent crystal formation in the kidneys and urine of patients taking what 2 types of drugs?