Antimicrobial 4

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  1. Is chloramphenicol (CAP) static or cidal?
    static. (cidal in high doses) do not use with penicillins or cephalosporins
  2. Is chloramphenicol useful in treating infections of the CNS, prostate, and globe of the eye?
  3. How is chloramphenicol excreted?
    liver metabolism - by conjugation using glucuronic acid, metabolites excreted in urine
  4. What common anticonvulsant drug completes with chloramphenicol for the specific liver enzymes that metabolizes them both?
  5. If phenobarbital is given with chloramphenicol to patient, (both for the first time), do the blood levels of each drug decrease at a faster or slower rate than usual?
    slower - toxicity may result
  6. Can we use chloramphenicol in food-producing animals? Why or why not?
    no. CAP residues in human food can cause fatal suppression of human bone marrow - aplastic anemia
  7. What drug is related to and similar to chloramphenicol, is approved for use in cattle, and is not toxic to human bone marrow?
  8. Are lincosamides static or cidal?
    either, depending on dose
  9. Are lincosamides good for bone infections?
  10. Which lincosamides are used more in livestock?
    • lincomycin - Lincocin
    • pirlimycin - Pirsue
  11. Which lincosamide is used most in small animals?
    clindamycin - Antirobe
  12. Clindamycin - Antirobe is especially known for treating what types of infections?
    • dental infections
    • some anaerobic infections
  13. What 3 drug types should not be used together due to competitive inhibition (all bind to the same site on the bacteria)?
    • lincosamides
    • erythromycin
    • chloramphenicol
  14. Are macrolides static or cidal?
    static. may be cidal if high dose
  15. Why are macrolides used PO instead of IM?
    IM is painful
  16. Are macrolides useful in treating infections of prostate?
  17. Are macrolides useful in treating infections of the CNS?
  18. What are some common side effects caused by administration of macrolides in small animals?
    GI signs - vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia
  19. Why should you avoid use of macrolides in ruminants and adult horses?
    causes severe diarrhea, may be fatal
  20. List 2 specific macrolides
    • erythromycin
    • tylosin - Tylan
  21. What is the earliest developed group of antimicrobial drugs?
  22. What is the mechanism of action of sulfonamides?
    interfere with folic acid synthesis of bacteria
  23. Are sulfonamides static or cidal?
  24. Are potential sulfonamides static or cidal?
  25. What is "potentiation" of a drug?
    adding a substance to the drug to make it more effective
  26. What specific substances are added to sulfonamides to potentiate them?
    • trimethoprim
    • ormetoprim
    • pyrimethamine
  27. What is the mechanism of action of trimethoprim and ormetoprim?
    they interfere with bacterial folic acid synthesis at a different point than the sulfonamides do
  28. In general, are sulfonamides broad spectrum or narrow spectrum?
    broad spectrum
  29. Can sulfonamides enter the prostate?
  30. Should use of sulfonamides bea voided in patients with liver or kidney failure?
  31. Why is it important to keep a patient on sulfonamides well hydrated?
    to prevent crystal formation in the kidneys - causes damage
  32. What 2 things can you do to prevent crystal formation in the kidneys of a patient taking sulfonamides?
    keep well hydrated, alkalinize urine
  33. List other problems that can occur in a patient taking sulfonamides.
    • GI signs - vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia
    • fever
    • allergic reactions - skin problems
    • KCS - keratoconjunctivitis sicca
    • bone marrow suppression
  34. Are sulfonamides inactivated by pus and cellular debris? Why?
    yes - bacteria can get folic acid from pus and cellular debris
  35. What is sulfasalazine broken down into in the intestines? What is sulfasalazine used for? Can it cause problems in cats? Why?
    • sulfapyridine + aminoalicylic acid.
    • used to treat inflammatory bowel problems
    • yes, it can cause problems in cats due to the salicylate compound - related to aspirin - cats metabolize very slowly, toxic levels can occur
  36. List 2 specific commonly used potentiated sulfonamides.
    • sulfadiazine + trimethoprim - Tribrissen, Ditrim
    • sulfadimethoxine + ormetoprim - Primor
  37. List a specific sulfonamide commonly used to treat coccidiosis.
    sulfadimethoxine - Albon
  38. What drug is commonly used to treat giardiasis?
  39. What other type of condition is metronidazole used to treat?
    anaerobic enteric infections
  40. What does "teratogenic" mean?
    causes birth defects
  41. Is metronidazole teratogenic?
  42. What antimicrobial drug is used to treat Corynebacterium (Rhodococcus) infections in young foals?
  43. What is rifampin's peculiar side effect?
    turns urine, tears, sweat, and saliva reddish - orange
  44. What is the difference between systemic and topical fungal infections?
    • systemic fungal infections affect the interior of the body - lungs, liver, CNS, blood - and are very serious
    • topical fungal infections - dermatophytoses or ringworm - affect the skin and are usually more annoying than dangerous
  45. Which is the most nephrotoxic antifungal medication? Is it used for systemic or topical fungal infections?
    amphotericin B - used for systemic infections
  46. How is the antifungal drug nystatin commonly used?
    • in fungal infections (Candidiasis) in the crops of birds - PO.
    • in topical combinations
  47. List 5 imidazole derivative antifungal drugs.
    • ketoconazole
    • itraconazole
    • fluconazole
    • miconazole
    • clotrimazole
  48. What are the imidazole derivatives use for?
    topical, deep, or systemic mycoses, or fungal infections
  49. Do the imidazole derivatives "kick in" immediately?
    no - they take 5 - 10 days to become fungicidal after the beginning of administration to the patient
  50. How is ketoconazole used?
    topically and PO for fungal infections
  51. What is ketoconazole's peculiar feature, and list its advantages and disadvantages
    • inhibits steroidogenesis.
    • since it inhibits corticol formation, it has been used to treat Cushing's disease.
    • since it inhibits testosterone formation, it should be avoided in breeding males
  52. Is ketoconazole teratogenic?
  53. What is miconazole used for? What is its human label name?
    dermatophytes and Candida. Monistat
  54. What is grieseofulvin used for?
    dermatophytosis - ringworm
  55. What is the difference between microsize and ultramicrosize griseofulvin?
    the size of the particles making up the tablet. ultramicroszie is absorbed better by the patient.
  56. What can we do to improve the absorption of PO griseofulvin?
    administer it with some fat - butter is good
  57. Is griseofulvin teratogenic?
  58. How long does it take for griseofulvin to cure ringworm? Does the ringworm start improving immediately after medication is started?
    • about 6 weeks
    • no - ringworm usually looks worse before it starts to look better, due to loss of previously damaged hair
  59. List 1 topical antiviral drug. What is it used for?
    idoxuridine - is used topically in ophthalmic ointment, to treat herpesvirus infection
  60. List 2 systemic antiviral drugs
    • AZT - azidothymidine
    • alpha - interferon
  61. List 3 drugs discussed in the antimicrobial section that are teratogenic
    • metronidazole
    • ketoconazole
    • griseofulvin
  62. What 2 drugs discussed in the antibacterial section are not active in pus and cellular debris?
    • aminoglycosides
    • sulfonamides
  63. What 2 drugs discussed in the antibacterial section will diffuse into the CNS? Which is best?
    • doxycycline
    • chloramphenicol
    • chloramphenicol is best
  64. What 3 drugs discussed int he antibacterial section will diffuse into the globe of the eye?
    • doxycycline
    • chloramphenicol
    • quinolones (baytril)
  65. What 4 drugs discussed in the antibacterial section will diffuse into the prostate?
    • doxycycline
    • chloramphenicol
    • quinolones (baytril)
    • macrolides (erythormycin)
  66. It is important to keep the patient well hydrated to prevent crystal formation in the kidneys and urine of patients taking what 2 types of drugs?
    • quinolones
    • sulfonamides
Card Set:
Antimicrobial 4
2012-02-16 23:15:06

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