Exam 3 part 1 study guide
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Defend this statement with evidence: “The United States of the 1920s is the America we know today”
- The majority of people live in urban areas
- Automobiles occupying street after street
- People flocking to movies
- Listening to radios
- Consumerism and materialism
- Lending and financial institutions providing easy credit
- Political scandals
Who were the "business-minded" presidents of the 1920s? Know the presidential years of each one. To which political party did they belong?
- Warren G. Harding of Ohio (1921-1923)
- Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts (1923-1929)
- Herbert C. Hoover of California (1929-1933)
They where all in the republican party.
Which party controlled the Congress in the 1920s?
The Republican Party.
In which ways did the federal government aid business in the Twenties?
- It reduced corporate taxes, increased tariff rates, the U.S. Supreme Court declared that striking unions restrained trade and thus violated the
- Sherman Act of 1890, and the High Court also struck down Progressive laws limiting child labor.
What were the farm proposals of the 1920s? What did President Calvin Coolidge do with them?
They are the McNaryHaugen bills of 1927 and 1928 and they proposed that the federal government buy surplus farm products and either hold them until prices rose or sell them to other countries. President Coolidge vetoed the bills.
Identify the following individuals and explain the scandals in which they were involved: Charles Forbes, Harry Daugherty, and Albert B. Fall. Explain the Teapot Dome scandal.
- Charles Forbes of the Veterans Bureau: During the Harding administration, Forbes,who headed the Veterans Bureau, stole $200 million in public funds. He was sentenced to two years in a federal prison.
- Attorney General Harry Daugherty: he was accused of graft and fraud and tried twice. Both cases resulted in hung juries. He escaped conviction by invoking his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. (assistants received bribes in exchange for pardons and government jobs)
- Albert B. Fall and the Teapot Dome Scandal: leased two naval oil reserves to private oil companies. One oil reserve was located at Elks Hill, California; the other was at Teapot Dome, Wyoming.They bribed him for this with stocks and bonds. He was investigated by the Senate after President Harding died and was sentenced to a year in jail and was fined $100,000 for accepting a bribe. He was the first cabinet member to go to jail.
What conclusions can we draw about Warren G. Harding?
There was no evidence that Harding was corrupt. He was just a poor judge of character. He appointed men to high government positions who abused their power and used government to increase their wealth.
What kinds of new comforts did millions of Americans begin enjoying for the first time during the Twenties?
- -Washing Machines
- -Clarence Birdseye’s Frozen Food
- -Cigarette Lighters
What was the symbol of social equality? Connect it to the working-class.
The Automobile was the symbol of social equality. Mass production through the assembly line helped bring down the price so that millions of working-class Americans could afford a Ford Model T.
In which way did the federal government promote automobile production and driving? Connect automobiles to related industries (including oil) and to suburbanization.
The Federal Government promoted automobile production and driving by using money to build roads. Automobiles cause the oil industry to grow because now automobiles needed oil. It also helped Suburbanization because it made it easier to travel so people moved out of the cites and into the suburbs.
Identify Bruce Barton, his book, and his argument.
Bruce Barton wrote the book The Man Nobody Knows. He argued in his book that Jesus was the “founder of modern business” because he and his twelve disciples had created an organization, Christianity, that had spread around the globe.
Explain "welfare capitalism"
Welfare Capitalism was created for businesses to take better care of their employees so they would be less likely to join unions and go on strike. It offered workers pensions, profit sharing, paid vacations, and even baseball diamonds near the plants. It helped the way they wanted it to.
Compare early motion picture films to those of the 1920s.
During the 1920s, movies became one of the nation’s leading industries. Unlike the earliest films, which had no sound and were only about thirty minutes long, the films of the Twenties had plots and sound.
Identify the non-political heros of the 1920s. (Know their names and vocations). Who was the biggest hero?
- George Herman “Babe” Ruth: called the “Sultan of Swat” Babe was an outfielder for the New York Yankees. He hit the baseball farther and more often out of the park than anyone before him.
- Jack Dempsey: The most famous heavyweight boxing champion
- Rudolph Valentino: the most prominent movie star (made women swoon)
- Charles A. Lindbergh: The Biggest Idol of the Twenties. He made the first nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean.
What became a very popular form of music in the 1920s? From what did it evolve?
Jazz became a popular form of music in the 1920s. It evolved from African American and black American folk music and was America’s most distinctive art form.
In which ways did some American women defy conventional attitudes about feminine behavior? Who were "flappers"?
Women in the 1920s now where wearing dresses above the knee, had their hair cut short, used make up, danced suggestively in the clubs, and even smoked cigarettes in public. These women where called Flappers.
What did the 1920 federal census reveal?
It revealed that six million Americans left their farms and moved to the cities. One reason for the migration was declining farm prices. Another was the availability of jobs in the cities.
Identify Marcus Garvey. What did he believe? What was the purpose of his Black Star shipping line? Connect Marcus Garvey to the federal Government.
Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican immigrant who settled in New York City. He formed the UNIA and tried to convince Blacks to separate themselves from corrupt white society and leave the U.S. So he created the Black Star shipping line to take blacks back to Africa. Eventually the federal government put the UNIA leaders on trial for anarchism. And then deported Garvey for mail fraud involving his Black Star Shipping Line
Define xenophobia. In which way did many Americans in the Twenties see immigrants?
Xenophobia: refers to a tremendous fear of and hatred for the foreigners. In the Twenties many native-born Americans saw European immigrants as radicals and anarchists who supposedly posed a threat to the U.S.
How did the Twenties reveal a "rapidly changing world?" What group formed in 1915 was a reaction to the rapidly changing world?
A rapidly changing country: mass consumerism and materialism, and to an emphasis not on God but on entertainment and idols, women who defied conventional norms by dressing provocatively and dancing suggestively, African Americans being considered second-class citizens. The KKK was formed in 1915 in reaction to the rapidly changing world.
In which ways was the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s different from that of the 1870s?
It was different in that instead of being just anti-black it was now also anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, and anti-Jewish.
Identify Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti. What was their main crime? What does their case serve as an example of?
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti where Italian immigrant anarchists convicted by a Massachusetts court in 1921 for murdering a guard and a paymaster during a robbery. The evidence did not prove their guild; their main crime appears to have been their political beliefs (anarchism) and Italian origincs. Their case is an example of Xenophobia.
What was the Scopes trial a reaction to? What issues were at the center of the trial? Who was John T. Scopes? Who represented him in the trail? Who was the prosecutor? Although Scopes was found guilty modernists claimed they won. Explain why.
The Scopes trial (Monkey Trail) is a reaction to the changing values of the 1920s. John T. Scopes was a Tennessee High School teacher who taught about evolution when it was against the law. Clarence Darrow represented him in trial. The prosecutor was William Jennings Bryan. Modernists claim they won because the courtroom testimony showed that fundamentalism was illogical.
Who were the presidential candidates of 1928? What did the Republican candidate have to say about prosperity and poverty? How was the Democratic candidate "a first"? What issues in the nation and in the South did the Democratic nominee have to confront?
The presidential candidates of 1928 where Herbert C. Hoover (Republican) and Alfred E. Smith (Democratic). Alfred E. Smith was the first Roman Catholic nominee of a major political party. The Democratic Party had to face anti-Catholicism.
Who won the 1928 presidential election? Explain its significance.
Herbert C. Hoover won the presidential election. The election was significant because the democrats won the 12 largest cities.
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