Immune System

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Immune System
2012-02-17 15:29:07

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  1. Immune response is the ability to distinguish between self and nonself. Body cells carry distinctive molecules that distinguish it as "self".
    • Markers of Self
  2. Like body cells, foreign molecules have a "nonself" marker. What are these markers called?
    • Epitopes
  3. Any substance capable of triggering an immune response is known as an?
    Antigen (bacteria, virus, transplanted tissue, allergies)
  4. Organs where immune cells develop and mature to the stage at which they are able to respond to a pathogen. Name the organs.
    • Primary Lymphoid Organs
    • Bone Marrow - blood cells and B lymphocytes
    • Thymus - T lymphocytes (major during fetal development)
  5. Organs where mature lymphocytes become stimulated to respond to invading pathogens. Name the organs.
    • Secondary Lymphoid Organs
    • Spleen - filters blood and removed old RBC's (largest immune organ)
    • Lymph nodes - lymphocytes and pathogens come together
    • Mucosal associated lymphoid tissue
  6. Small, bean-shaped structures that are throughout the body. Contains specialized compartments where immune cells congregate, and wher they can encounter antigens.
    Lymph Nodes
  7. What is this?
    • Antibody - superior region binds on the anitgens; inferior region binds to cellsIgG, IgD, IgE have a similar appearance
    • IgG - 800-1700serum concentration; found in blood and tissue spaces; most abundant internal Ig; attaches to antigen; ++ complement fixataion
    • IgD - 0.3-0.4 serum; found on membrane of B-cells; - complement fixation
    • IgE - <0.001 serum; initiates inflammation; causes allergy symptoms; - complement fixation
    • *B-cells are the only cells to produce antibodies
  8. This specific antibody concentrates in body fluid (i.e. tears, saliva, secretions of respiratory and GI Tract). It guards the entrance to body.
    • IgA - 140-420 serum concentration; protects mucosal surfaces; - complement fixation
  9. This specific antibody remains in the bloodstream, where it is very effective in killing bacteria.
    • IgM - 50-190 serum concentration; very efficient against bacteriaemia; +++ complement fixation
  10. These cells activate many immune cells (including B and T). Then can also deactivate immune cells.
    • Thelper / CD4
  11. These cells rid the body of cells that have been infected by viruses as well as cells that have been transformed by cancer. They are also responsible for the rejection of tissue and organ grafts.
    • Cytotoxic T / CD8
  12. This cells functions by secreting soluble substances known as antibodies. Each one is programmed to make one specific antibody. They give rise to plasma cells which are factories for making the specific anitbody.
    • B Cells
  13. These cells are diverse and potent chemical messengers secreted by cells of the immune system -- and the chief tool of T cells.
    These cells recruit many other cells and substances to the field of action.
    These cells can encourage cell growth, promote cell activation, direct cellular traffic, and destroy target cells (i.e. cancer cells).
    They serve as a messenger between white cells.
    • Cytokines / Interleukins
  14. What is the difference between Cytotoxic T and Natural Killer Cells?
    • Natural Killer (NK) Cells do not need to recognize a specific antigen
  15. Large WBC that engulf and digest foreign invaders
    • Phagocytes
    • Monocytes - circulate in blood
    • Macrophages - found in tissues
    • Neutrophils - circulate in blood but move into tissue
    • Macrophages - scavengers that secrete chemicals and aid in activating T cells
  16. Depending on the location of phagocytes, they are called other names, but are still phagocytes.
  17. This system consists of a series of proteins that work in conjunction with anitbodies to destroy bacteria
    • Complement
  18. What is this picture demonstrating?
    • Different antigen receptors
    • CD4 - MHC Class II marker
    • CD8 - MHC Class I marker
  19. What is this picture demonstrating?
    Activation of B cells to make antibodies
  20. What is this picture demonstrating?
    Activation of Helper T Cells & Cytotoxic T Cells
  21. What is the difference between long-term immunity and short-term immunity?
    • Long-term / Active / Natural Immunity - triggered by infection or vaccine
    • Short-term / Passive / Acquired Immunity - antibody-containing serum
  22. What is this picture demonstrating?
    Allergic Response
  23. Action is immediate.
    Response is non-specific.
    Response is not enhanced on repeated exposure to pathogen.
    What type of immunity is this?
    What are some component associated with this type of immunity?
    • Innate Immunity - no antigens involved at all
    • Macrophages
    • Granulocytes
    • NK Cells
    • Complement
  24. Action requires days to develop (incubation)
    Response is specific
    Response is enhanced on repeated exposure to pathogen
    What type of immunity is this?
    What are some components associated with this type of immunity?
    • Adaptive Immunity
    • Antigen presenting cells (cell-mediated; antibody)
    • T cells (cell-mediated / humoral)
    • B cells (humoral; cytoplasm)
    • Antibodies (humoral; cytoplasm)
    • Complement (humoral; cytoplasm)
    • Cytokines(humoral; cytoplasm)
  25. What is this picture demonstrating?
    Primary Immune response - 1st exposure to antigen
  26. What is this picture demonstrating?
    Secondary Immune Response - 2nd exposure to antigen
  27. What is going on in figure 2?
    • Neutralization of toxins
    • 1. toxins kill cells
    • 2. antibodies bind to toxins (this combination is a complex) neutralizing the destructive ability
    • 3. Complex gets phagocytized ("eaten")
  28. What is going in the middle figure?
    • Opsonization of Bacteria
    • Opsonization - preparing for the process of phagocytosis
  29. What is going on in figure 3?
    • Activation of complement
    • Bacterial cell wall gets punctured causing leakage of contents