pysch ch. 5

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Brianna.singer
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135918
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pysch ch. 5
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2012-02-17 01:10:27
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psych 333
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ch.5
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  1. Unipolar
    • anxiety rates higher
    • only has one extreme end
    • (aka clinical depression)
    • dysthymia
    • major depressive disorder
  2. Bipolar
    • anxiety rates are higher
    • Has high and low symptoms/episodes
    • I
    • II
    • cylothymia
  3. Polar depression
  4. Major Depression
    • Prevalance
    • 2-5% children
    • 8-9% of women
    • 2-3% of men
    • age of onset
    • 11-15
  5. dysthymic disorder
    • Prevalence
    • 1-2% children
    • 3% of adults
    • Age of onset
    • 8-10
  6. cyclothmic
    • Prevelance
    • .4-1%
    • Age of onset
    • 15-19
  7. Bipolar I disorder
    • Prevelance
    • unknown in children
    • .4-1.6% of adults
    • Age of onset
    • 15-19
    • heretitary
  8. Bipolar II disorder
    • Prevelance
    • unkown
    • Age of onset
    • unknown in children
    • .5% of adults
  9. MAOA
    warrior gene
    • anger and agression
    • clears out excess seritonen

    activity is lower in aggressive individuals than in controls

    MAOA degrades monoamine neurotransmitters including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)
  10. Structural MRI
    Strength: measures brain funtion acuratly
  11. FMRI
    • a strong magnetic 'pulse' is introduced
    • this changes the orientation of oxygenated hemoglobin molecules
    • a second magnetic pulse measures radio waves emitted by oxygenated hemoglobin molecules as they reorient back to normal
    • greater oxygen delivery indicates neural activity

    • strengths of fMRI:
    • good spatial resolution
    • real-time measure of brain activity
    • can be used to assess connectivity between neural structures weaknesses:
    • assess activity in specific brain regions, not in specific neurotransmitters
    • limited temporal resolution
    • difficult to use with very young children
  12. MRI
    • brain placed in a VERY strong magnetic field
    • hydrogen (H) nuclei absorb the pulsethe energy is re-emitted as radio waves, which are measured by the scanner
    • since different tissues contain different amounts of water (H2O), contrast images can be constructed
    • strengths of structural MRI:
    • exceptional spatial resolution
    • measures brain volume accurately
    • weaknesses of structural MRI:
    • does not assess brain function
    • expensive
  13. dopamine
    • exploration, motivation
    • impulsivity, ADHD, conduct problems, antisocial tendencies, substance abuse
  14. norepinephrine
    • sociability, alertness, attention
    • asociality, aloofness, fearfulness, PTSD
    • BRAIN lucas coeruleus
  15. serotonin
    • avoidance of threat and danger
    • anxiety, depression, obsessionality, suicide
  16. treatment of Bipolar depression
    • IMPORTANT: ordinary antidepressants, especially SSRIs and NDRIs, should rarely if ever be used to treat someone with bipolar disorder, or someone who is depressed with a family history of bipolar disorder
    • SSRIs often precipitate manic episodes and worsen course of illness
  17. Brain scan techniques
    • MRI
    • FMRI
    • EEG
    • PET
    • *no method provide highly precise measurements in real time
  18. Structured clinical interviews
    structured clinical interviews yield good reliability for current diagnosis but poor reliability for lifetime prevalence

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