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Rational Choice Theory (AKA? and who?)
Beccaria AKA Classical Deterrence Theory
Routine Activities Theory - who?
Cohen and Felson
What are Felson's 3 ingredients for his "Chemistry of Crime"?
- 1. Presence of a motivated offender
- 2. Presence of a suitable target
- 3. Absence of guardianship
Describe Situational Crime Prevention and how it relates to Opporunity Theory
According to the Opportunity theory crime happens because of a presence of a motivated offender, a presence of a suitable target, and absense of guardianship. So with Situational Crime Prevention you must remove one of those three things. If you take away the presence of a suitable target using natural, mechanical, or organized strategies the crime won't happen.
Social Disorganization... Who?
Shaw and McKay
Social Disorganization has the Centric Zone Theory. There are 5 zones in Chicago, which one has the highest crime rate?
The Zone of Transitions
What are the 5 Zones in Chicago?
- 1. Loop or central business district
- 2. Zone of Transitions
- 3. Zone of Working Men's Home
- 4. Residential Zone
- 5. Commuters Zone
What are the 3 characteristics that maek an area socially disorganized?
- 1. Population heterogeneity
- 2. High mobility population transiency
- 3. Poverty
Theory of Differential Association.. Who?
What is the main idea behind the Theory of Differential Association (Sutherland)?
That deviant behavior is LEARNED not inherited. We are innately empty and crime comes from an excess of favorable definitions of crime. Whether you become anti-social or pro-social is a product of dumb luck.
Social Learning Theory...Who?
Akers and Burgess
Focal Concerns Theory... Who? and how is it based?`
Miller - class based.
What are teh 6 focal concerns given in Millers Focal Concerns Theory?
- 1. Trouble
- 2. Toughness
- 3. Smartness
- 4. Excitement
- 5. Fate
- 6. Autonomy
Subculture of Violence... Who and how is it based?
Wolgang and Ferracuti. Racial based
Code of the Streets - Who and how is it based?
Elijah Anderson - (Context based)
Atavistic Theory... Who?
What does Lombroso mean by "atavistic"?
Reverting back to ancestral type. Atavistic tendiencies manifest physically - barbaric traits
What are Lombroso's 4 Criminal Types?
- 1. Born Criminals
- 2. Insane Criminals
- 3. Occasional Criminals
- 4. Criminals of Passion
Anomie-Strain Theory - Who?
Merton (Durkheim termed anomie)
What did Durkheim mean by "anomie" and when does it occur?
normlessness or absence of norms. This occurs when rules or guidlines break down and people start acting in self-interest.
What are Merton's 4 Modes of Individual Adaptions to an anomic society?
- 1. Conformity - accepts and accepts
- 2. Innovation - accepts and rejects
- 3. Ritualism - rejects and accepts
- 4. Retreatism - rejects and rejects
- 5. Rebellion - rejects and rejects and adds new goals and means.
General Strain Theory.... Who?
What are Agnew's 3 sources of Strain? and how are they mediated?
- 1. failure to achieve positvely valued goals
- 2. actual or anticipated presence of negative stimuli
- 3. actual or anticipated removal of positive valued stimuli
Mediated by coping factors. Family, school, etc.
Institutional Anomie... Who?
Messner and Rosenfield
According to the Institutional Anomie Thoery what are we governed by?
the insatiable pursuit of money
Social Bond Theory... Who?
What is the basic idea of social bond theory? and what are the 4 elements?
The stronger the bond to society the less likely crime will happen.
- 1. attachment
- 2. commitment
- 3. involvement
- 4. belief
Self Control Theory.... Who?
Gottredson and Hirschi
According ot the Self-Control Theory what is the definition of crime and criminally analogous behavior?
- Crime: any act of force or fraud in pursuit of self-interest
- Criminally analogous behavior: actions geared toward short-term gratification that have long-term negative consequences.
What are the characteristics of criminals? (according to the Self-Control Theory)
Impulsive, lazy, thrill-seeking, lacking intelligence, easily angered or quick-tempered, self-centered and insenstive to others, and avoid long-term commitment.
What is the difference between Within-Individuals and Between-Individuals?
Within-Individual levels vary and Between-Individual levels remain constant.
What are the policy implications for the Self-Control Theory?
Formal attempts to intervene in adulthood are too late. Kids Self-control is set by age 8
Where does self-control come from?
What are the 3 main differences between Perceptual Detterence theory and Rational Choice Theory?
- 1. it does not assume rationality. perceptions lead to behavior.
- 2. focuses more on perceptions of legal punishments
- 3. policy proposals from perceptual deterrance theory are often unstated or unclear.
Know something about Status Frustration Theory?
Frustrated at being stuck in the same social status.?