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What does GER stand for
What does GERD stand for?
gastroesophageal reflux disease
what does LES stand for?
lower esophageal sphincter
What does pt.Ed mean?
term meaning has a problem with chewing and swallows
term referring to a passage of substances beneath the vocal chords into the pharynx and trachea
aspiration of the stomach content into the lungs following a gastroesphagel reflux
inflammation of the lungs due to the entrance of foreign matter, such as food particles, into respitory passages
______ is a mucous membrane covering the tubular body structures and formed by superposed layers of epithelium, lamina properia and smooth muscle (alimentary tract)
_____ is a clear, thick and sticky secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells,epethelial cells and salt suspended in water.
endocrine hormone released by the stomach stimulates hydrochloric acid secretion
what diets are indicated for the management of dysphagia?
diets modified in food texture and fluid consistancy
______ is condition characterized by abnormal, recurrent reflux of gastric acid into the esophagus causing symptoms and esophageal damage
_______ _________ is an inflammation of the esophagus due to gastroesophageal reflux, which causes increased epithelial cell turnover
_________ or belching is the passage of gas or a small amount of refluxed acidic gastric material through the mouth
_________ is defined as pain when swallowing
a _____ is the narrowing or stenosis of a hollow structure or tube.
_____ is damage to mucosa or skin surface, due to superficial loss of tissue and possibly accompanied by inflammation
_____ is fiberous tissue replacing normal tissue damaged by disease or injury
_______ is characterized by abnormal transformation of differentiated tissue of one type into differentiated tissue of another type
________ is the growth of abnormal tissue
an ______ is an examination of the interior of a hollow organ using an instrument like the endoscope
_________ is defined as an epithelial cell cancer (neoplasm or malignant tumor)
signs and symptoms of GERD
- increased salivation
complications that result from GERD
- severe dysphagia
etiological factors and conditions that contribute to the development of GERD
- excess gastric acid secretion
- zollinger-ellison syndrome
- increased hormone secretion
- increased abdominal pressure
- binge eating
- high caffeine
- high fat diet
type of treatments available for GERD
- diet therapy
dietary and lifestyle recommendations for patients with GERD
- avoid high fat food
- dont lie down after eating
- avoid mint, choc, black pepper
- lose wt
- no tight clothes
- avoid smoking
what type of drugs used for the management of GERD
- histamine blocker
- pepsin AC
dietary sources of asorbic acid can be recommended
- green vegetables
what does PUD stand for?
peptic ulcer disease
what does N & V stand for?
nasuea and vomitting
what does DAT stand for?
diet as tolerated
which foods increase gastric acid secretion ?
alcohol, coffee, spices, caffeine-containing food
what does ischemia mean?
reduction of blood supply to a localized tissue or organ usually caused by arterial narrowing or obstruction of blood inflow to the tissue
_________ is impaired digestion of stomach content with epigastric pain caused by disorders affecting gastric function
________ is a break in the mucosa of an organ of the alimentary tract exposed to gastric acid and pepsin
________ is the inflammation of the stomach, especially the mucosa with leukocyte inflitration
________ is a rare syndrome including diarrhea and severe peptic ulceration due to gastric hypersection secondary to excessive gastrin release from an endocrine gastric and pancreatic neoplasm
______ is surgical incision of the vagus nerve
________ surgical excision or removal of part or all of the stomach
________ is the formation of an artifical or surgical opening into the stomach
_______ is an abnormal opening or connection formed between one epithelial surface and another, artifical passage can be between two organs or two parts of the same organ
casual agents of peptic ulceration
- intake of drugs or steroids
what factors or conditions increase gastic acid secretion?
- chronic h.pylori gastris
treatment options for clients with peptic ulcers?
- drug therapy
- diet therapy
main goals of nutrition care for clients with PUD (peptic ulcer disease)
- healing = adequete nutrient intake
- limit acid production
dietary recommendations for clients with PUD
- healthy, well balanced diet
- limit caffeine
- limit spices
- plan and eat meal at regular intervals
- avoid alcohol
complications of peptic ulcer disease?
- gastric obstruction
- stomach cancer
difference between gastropathy and gastritis?
- gastropathy - general term of any disease of the stomach
- gastritis- inflammation, inflitration of w.b.cells
is h. pylori the major casual agent in the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers
why are PUD clients at risk for malnutrition
- iron def.
- food intolerance
what is inflammatory bowel disease?
is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the intestines
two main inflammatory bowel diseases?
- 1. crohn's
- 2. ulcerative colitis
majority of digestion of food and absorbtion of nutrients takes place where?
composition of intestinal juice?
water, salt, mucus, digestive enzymes
beneficial bacteria that colonize in the ileum produce what vitamin?
vitamin b12 is absorbed bound to the _____ ______
lesion of skin as result of inflammation
exam of organ using an endoscope
dietary fiber on fiber-restricted diet? __g
10g, no insoluble
how much dietary fiber for a high fiber diet?
__ g -woman
__g - men
define ulcerative colitis ?
chronic disease causing ulcers in small intestine
define crohn's disease
- autoimmune response
- inflammation in any part of the GI tract
define irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- abdominal pain
- diarrhea or constipation
body responses to injury
abnormal passage or connection between one epithelium and another
removal of the rectum and anus
- over 50 years old
- endoscopic examination of the colon
signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis
- abdominal pain
- rectal bleeding
complications of ulcerative colitis
- loss of blood
how is ulcerative colitis diagnosed
- barium enema
- c-reactive protein
signs and symptoms of crohns
- bloody stool
- abdominal pain
complications of crohns
- maldigestion or malabsorbtion
- low protein in blood
tests done to diagnose crohns
purpose of nutrition therapy for IBD
- 1. prevent malnutrition/correct
- 2.promote healing
- 3. normalize system
dietary recommendations for clients with IBD
- high cal, protein, vit, mineral
- more serious: clear liquids
- improvement: low residue/low lactose/high fiber
why are individuals at high risk for malnutrition with IBD
- nutrients not absorbed
- inadequete digestion
- high need of nutrients
nutrients at risk of not being adequete with IBD
- water soluble vitamins
3 differences between crohns and ulcerative colitis
- 1. patches anywhere
- 2. fistulas
- 3. can effect entire GI tract
4 similarities between crohns and ulcerative colitis
- 1. inflammation
- 2. bloating, cramps
- 3. both increased in insidence
- 4. frequent in young adult females
steps of digestion
main digestion where?
- pro: peptones + pepsin = amino acids
- fat: short chain fatty acids + lingual lipase = pancreatic lipase
- carb: starch+salivary amylase
- starch-> maltose +maltase
- starch-> glucose + sucrose
- starch-> lactose+ lactase
- SMALL INTESTINE!
oral disease can lead to ?
types of oral disease (4)
- nutritional deficits
- gingivitis-gum inflammation
- stomatitis- inflammation of membranes
- glossitis- shiny tougne
- cheilosis - cracks in corner of mouth
motility disorder with absence of peritalsis
(opposite of GERD)
what is dumping syndrome
increased osmolar load enters small intestine to quickly from stomach
if lipid is not absorbed in small intestine
abnormal presence of outpockets or pouches on surface of colon
autoimmune chronic inflammatory condition of GI tract
2 sub groups
- inflammatory bowel disease
- ulcerative colitis- fistula - one patch
- crohns disease - multiple patches