Psyc of Fam Exam 1 pt 1

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Psyc of Fam Exam 1 pt 1
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2012-02-18 22:19:20
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Psyc Fam Exam pt1
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Psyc of Fam Exam 1 pt1
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  1. social learning theory
    exchanging rewarding or positive behaviors contributes to the quality of intimate relationships, and exchanging punishing or negative behaviors does harm.
  2. coercion theory
    • offshoot of social learning theory
    • a mother responding to her child only when he is shouting which reinforces to him that this will occur if he shouts.
  3. escape conditioning
    behaviors are reinforced if they lead to the end of an aversive or painful stimulus.
  4. negative reciprocity
    distressed couples not only more negative but demonstrated a greater tendency to respond to each other’s negativity with more negativity.
  5. social exchange theory
    partners in all social interactions try to maximize their outcomes through the exchange of social goods like status, approval, and information.
  6. interdependence theory
    the defining feature of any relationship is interdependence.
  7. rewards
    any of the ways that the relationship may fulfill the needs and desires of each partner.
  8. costs
    any of the consequences of being in a relationship that prevent partners from fulfilling their needs or desires.
  9. materials rewards
    food and protection
  10. social rewards
    companionship, validation, and security.
  11. opportunity costs
    costs associated with not pursuing these other possible sources of reward.
  12. subjective probability
    your own sense of the likelihood of a particular reward or cost happening
  13. comparison level
    certain standard of what they think they deserve.
  14. comparison level for alternatives
    partners’ perceptions of their potential alternatives to a current relationship.
  15. alternatives
    all of the likely consequences of leaving a relationship, including being alone.
  16. investments
    the number and magnitude of resources that are tied to a relationship.
  17. barriers
    • all the forces external to a relationship that act to keep partners together.
    • ex: divorce being looked down upon and full of stigma.
  18. commitment
    intention to remain in and feel connected to a relationship.
  19. attachment theory
    the intimate relationships we form in our adult lives are shaped largely by the nature of the bonds we form with our primary caregivers in infancy and early childhood.
  20. attachment figure
    person who provides a child with comfort and care.
  21. attachment behavior system
    set of behaviors and reactions that monitor and regulate the distance between themselves and their attachment figures.
  22. secure base
    safe environment in which an infant can learn, play or interact with others.
  23. internal working models of attachment
    repeated experiences with caregivers form the basis of enduring beliefs and expectations about how attachment figures are likely to act.
  24. referencing
    infants looking toward their mothers for direction or reassurance.
  25. secure attachment
    • confident exploration, upset when left alone but soothed when mothers returned, willing to socialize with stranger if mother was near.
    • 60 percent
  26. avoidant attachment
    • 25 percent
    • seemed distant from mothers, concentrated mostly on toys, insensitive to whether mothers were present or not, uninterested in socializing with stranger.
  27. anxious/ambivalent attachment
    • 15 percent
    • infants unwilling to explore the novel environment, terrified when left alone, relieved and resentful at mothers return.
  28. attachment styles
    2 dimensions of attachment – avoidance and anxiety, creating 4 distinct attachment styles.
  29. attachment related anxiety
    extent to which people worry about whether their attachment figures will be willing to provide them with care.
  30. attachment related violence
    • extent to which people seek out or withdraw from others.
    • evolutionary psychology
    • the brain evolved in response to specific selection pressures that lead some preferences and capacities to be associated with more successful reproduction.
  31. sexual selection
    a feature may be adaptive b/c it directly increases an organism’s chances of successfully reproducing by helping the organism compete for or attract mates.
  32. psychological mechanisms
    the preferences, capacities, responses, and strategies characterizing the human species.
  33. environment of evolutionary adaptedness
    period tens of thousands of years ago during which the human species took its current form.
  34. theory of parental investment
    sexual selection pressures tend to vary based on the amount of energy and resources each sex must invest to raise surviving offspring.
  35. cross cultural studies
    researchers identify behaviors that characterize mating and sexuality consistently across a wide variety of countries and cultures.
  36. experimental research
    researchers take a more active role by manipulating one element of a phenomenon to determine its effects on the rest of the phenomenon.
  37. dependent variable
    the effect or outcome researchers want to understand.
  38. independent variable
    the possible cause the researcher manipulates to see if changes occur in the dependent var.
  39. control
    held constant across conditions.
  40. random assignment
    ensuring that every research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any condition of an experiment.
  41. external validity
    • whether the results of an experiment apply in other situations.
    • want high external validity.
  42. archival research
    researcher examines existing data that have already been gathered usually for an unrelated purpose.
  43. content analysis
    coding experiment materials in such a way that they can quantify differences between units.
  44. sample
    subset of a broader population.
  45. representative sample
    samples consisting of people who are demonstrably similar to the population to which the researchers would like to generalize.
  46. convenience samples
    • samples recruited soelely because they are easy to find.
    • ex: college students for experiments on a college campus.
  47. null hypothesis
    • the hypothesis that there is no effect
    • want to disconfirm this
  48. statistically significant effects
    effects large enough to occur less than 5 percent of the time if the null hypothesis were true.
  49. meta analysis
    set of statistics techniques designed to combine results across studies and reveal the overall effects observed by a body of scientific research.
  50. ethical issues
    • confidentiality
    • anonymity
    • informed consent
  51. falsifiable
    a theory suggests testable predictions that can be confirmed or disconfirmed through systematic observation.
  52. hypothesis
    specific predictions suggested by a theory.
  53. replication
    research that examines the same questions multiple times.
  54. operationalization
    • creating an experiment
    • translation of an abstract construct into concrete terms in order to test predictions about the construct.
  55. psychological constructs
    abstract ideas like love, conflict, support.
  56. construct validity
    to describe how well an operationalization represents a particular construct.
  57. self reports
    partners own descriptions and evaluations of their experiences.
  58. sociosexuality
    people vary in their willingness o contemplate sex outside the context of a committed intimate relationship.
  59. fixed response scales
    researcher determines all the specific questions and possible answers.
  60. qualitative research
    relies primarily on open-ended questions and other loosely structured info.
  61. social desirability effect
    the possibility that research participants are giving answer they think will make them look good to the researchers
  62. omnibus measure
    • taps a wide range of content like a design that reflects the idea that satisfaction is based on opinions about the relationship as a whole as well as opinions about a range of specific aspects.
    • works until you want to compare its data with more specific aspects.
  63. item overlap problem
    occurs whenever questionnaires that are minimally measuring different constructs contain questions about similar topics.
  64. global measures
    measures that ask partners only about their evaluations of their relationship as a whole.
  65. observational measures
    gathering data about relationship events without having to ask the people experiencing the events.
  66. sentiment override
    reports of partner behaviors may reflect general feelings rather than the behaviors themselves.
  67. physiological responses
    the body’s involuntary reactions.
  68. homebased observation
    hope that couples will act more naturally when in their own environments.
  69. lab based observation
    eliminates any outside factors that may alter couples behavior while they are at home.
  70. reliability
    the extent to which different observers agree that a specified behaviors has or has not occurred.
  71. reactivity
    the act of observing someone changes the behavior being observed.
  72. multiple method approach
    • operationalizing the constructs of interest in different ways
    • using different experimental techniques to test the question
  73. correlational research
    to study the naturally occurring associations among variables.
  74. causation
    idea that one event or circumstance is the direct result of another.
  75. cross sectional data
    data that describes a cross section of something (a moment in time)
  76. longitudinal data
    collecting measurements of the same indivs at two or more occasions to see what happens over time.
  77. interdependence
    mutual influence that two people have over one another.
  78. bidirectional
    interdependence that connects them has to operate in both directions.
  79. impersonal relationships
    tend to be formal and task oriented
  80. personal relationships
    relatively informal and engage us at a deepter emotional level.
  81. close relationship
    • qualifies interdependent and personal relationships
    • the strength, frequency, and diversity of the influences that partners have over one another.
  82. intimate relationship
    characterized by strong, sustained, mutual influence across a wide range of interactions, featuring at least the potential for sexual interaction.
  83. pairbonds
    • some form of union
    • ex: living together, marriage
  84. passionate love
    infatuation, intense preoccupation, strong sexual longing, throes of ecstasy, and feelings of exhilaration that come from being reunited with the partner.
  85. companionate love
    potent feelings of passionate love diminish but are enriched by warm feelings of attachment, an authentic and enduring bond, a sense of mutual commitment
  86. subjective well being
    • our reports about how happy we are generally in life
    • liked with various aspects of our intimate relationships.
  87. relationship quality
    how good or bad partners judge their relationship to be
  88. relationship transitions
    movement into and out of partnerships.
  89. selection effect
    • when groups of people differ not b/c of something special about the groups they are in, but because of the people who choose to enter those groups.
    • ex: happier people marry; their happiness is not because of marriage itself but because the people who make their way into marriage are happier than those who don’t marry.
  90. protection effects
    something about the experience itself produces protective benefits or advantages.
  91. intergenerational transmission effects
    the family circumstances children encounter will influence the way they manage their own intimate relationships decades later.
  92. social control theory
    helps explain the link between

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