Psyc of Fam Exam 1 pt 1
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Psyc of Fam Exam 1 pt 1
Psyc Fam Exam pt1
Psyc of Fam Exam 1 pt1
social learning theory
exchanging rewarding or positive behaviors contributes to the quality of intimate relationships, and exchanging punishing or negative behaviors does harm.
offshoot of social learning theory
a mother responding to her child only when he is shouting which reinforces to him that this will occur if he shouts.
behaviors are reinforced if they lead to the end of an aversive or painful stimulus.
distressed couples not only more negative but demonstrated a greater tendency to respond to each other’s negativity with more negativity.
social exchange theory
partners in all social interactions try to maximize their outcomes through the exchange of social goods like status, approval, and information.
the defining feature of any relationship is interdependence.
any of the ways that the relationship may fulfill the needs and desires of each partner.
any of the consequences of being in a relationship that prevent partners from fulfilling their needs or desires.
food and protection
companionship, validation, and security.
costs associated with not pursuing these other possible sources of reward.
your own sense of the likelihood of a particular reward or cost happening
certain standard of what they think they deserve.
comparison level for alternatives
partners’ perceptions of their potential alternatives to a current relationship.
all of the likely consequences of leaving a relationship, including being alone.
the number and magnitude of resources that are tied to a relationship.
all the forces external to a relationship that act to keep partners together.
: divorce being looked down upon and full of stigma.
intention to remain in and feel connected to a relationship.
the intimate relationships we form in our adult lives are shaped largely by the nature of the bonds we form with our primary caregivers in infancy and early childhood.
person who provides a child with comfort and care.
attachment behavior system
set of behaviors and reactions that monitor and regulate the distance between themselves and their attachment figures.
safe environment in which an infant can learn, play or interact with others.
internal working models of attachment
repeated experiences with caregivers form the basis of enduring beliefs and expectations about how attachment figures are likely to act.
infants looking toward their mothers for direction or reassurance.
confident exploration, upset when left alone but soothed when mothers returned, willing to socialize with stranger if mother was near.
seemed distant from mothers, concentrated mostly on toys, insensitive to whether mothers were present or not, uninterested in socializing with stranger.
infants unwilling to explore the novel environment, terrified when left alone, relieved and resentful at mothers return.
2 dimensions of attachment – avoidance and anxiety, creating 4 distinct attachment styles.
attachment related anxiety
extent to which people worry about whether their attachment figures will be willing to provide them with care.
attachment related violence
extent to which people seek out or withdraw from others.
the brain evolved in response to specific selection pressures that lead some preferences and capacities to be associated with more successful reproduction.
a feature may be adaptive b/c it directly increases an organism’s chances of successfully reproducing by helping the organism compete for or attract mates.
the preferences, capacities, responses, and strategies characterizing the human species.
environment of evolutionary adaptedness
period tens of thousands of years ago during which the human species took its current form.
theory of parental investment
sexual selection pressures tend to vary based on the amount of energy and resources each sex must invest to raise surviving offspring.
cross cultural studies
researchers identify behaviors that characterize mating and sexuality consistently across a wide variety of countries and cultures.
researchers take a more active role by manipulating one element of a phenomenon to determine its effects on the rest of the phenomenon.
the effect or outcome researchers want to understand.
the possible cause the researcher manipulates to see if changes occur in the dependent var.
held constant across conditions.
ensuring that every research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any condition of an experiment.
whether the results of an experiment apply in other situations.
want high external validity.
researcher examines existing data that have already been gathered usually for an unrelated purpose.
coding experiment materials in such a way that they can quantify differences between units.
subset of a broader population.
samples consisting of people who are demonstrably similar to the population to which the researchers would like to generalize.
samples recruited soelely because they are easy to find.
: college students for experiments on a college campus.
the hypothesis that there is no effect
want to disconfirm this
statistically significant effects
effects large enough to occur less than 5 percent of the time if the null hypothesis were true.
set of statistics techniques designed to combine results across studies and reveal the overall effects observed by a body of scientific research.
a theory suggests testable predictions that can be confirmed or disconfirmed through systematic observation.
specific predictions suggested by a theory.
research that examines the same questions multiple times.
creating an experiment
translation of an abstract construct into concrete terms in order to test predictions about the construct.
abstract ideas like love, conflict, support.
to describe how well an operationalization represents a particular construct.
partners own descriptions and evaluations of their experiences.
people vary in their willingness o contemplate sex outside the context of a committed intimate relationship.
fixed response scales
researcher determines all the specific questions and possible answers.
relies primarily on open-ended questions and other loosely structured info.
social desirability effect
the possibility that research participants are giving answer they think will make them look good to the researchers
taps a wide range of content like a design that reflects the idea that satisfaction is based on opinions about the relationship as a whole as well as opinions about a range of specific aspects.
works until you want to compare its data with more specific aspects.
item overlap problem
occurs whenever questionnaires that are minimally measuring different constructs contain questions about similar topics.
measures that ask partners only about their evaluations of their relationship as a whole.
gathering data about relationship events without having to ask the people experiencing the events.
reports of partner behaviors may reflect general feelings rather than the behaviors themselves.
the body’s involuntary reactions.
hope that couples will act more naturally when in their own environments.
lab based observation
eliminates any outside factors that may alter couples behavior while they are at home.
the extent to which different observers agree that a specified behaviors has or has not occurred.
the act of observing someone changes the behavior being observed.
multiple method approach
operationalizing the constructs of interest in different ways
using different experimental techniques to test the question
to study the naturally occurring associations among variables.
idea that one event or circumstance is the direct result of another.
cross sectional data
data that describes a cross section of something (a moment in time)
collecting measurements of the same indivs at two or more occasions to see what happens over time.
mutual influence that two people have over one another.
interdependence that connects them has to operate in both directions.
tend to be formal and task oriented
relatively informal and engage us at a deepter emotional level.
qualifies interdependent and personal relationships
the strength, frequency, and diversity of the influences that partners have over one another.
characterized by strong, sustained, mutual influence across a wide range of interactions, featuring at least the potential for sexual interaction.
some form of union
: living together, marriage
infatuation, intense preoccupation, strong sexual longing, throes of ecstasy, and feelings of exhilaration that come from being reunited with the partner.
potent feelings of passionate love diminish but are enriched by warm feelings of attachment, an authentic and enduring bond, a sense of mutual commitment
subjective well being
our reports about how happy we are generally in life
liked with various aspects of our intimate relationships.
how good or bad partners judge their relationship to be
movement into and out of partnerships.
when groups of people differ not b/c of something special about the groups they are in, but because of the people who choose to enter those groups.
: happier people marry; their happiness is not because of marriage itself but because the people who make their way into marriage are happier than those who don’t marry.
something about the experience itself produces protective benefits or advantages.
intergenerational transmission effects
the family circumstances children encounter will influence the way they manage their own intimate relationships decades later.
social control theory
helps explain the link between