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2012-02-17 18:09:55
vocabulary hardware software batch2

Vocabulary for beginner-level IT (2 of 3)
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  1. ´╗┐Computer Management
    Applet in Windows' Administrative Tools that contains several useful snap-ins, such as Device Manager and Disk Management.
  2. context menu
    Small menu brought up by right-clicking on objects in Windows.
  3. Control Panel
    Collection of Windows applets, or small programs that can be used to configure various pieces of hardware and software in a system.
  4. desktop
    User's primary interface to the Windows operating system.
  5. Device Manager
    Control Panel applet in Microsoft Windows operating systems. It allows users to view and control the hardware attached to the computer.
  6. extensions
    the two, three or four letters at the end of a filename, such as .EXE, .TXT, or.JPG.
  7. file association
    Windows term for the proper program to open a particular file; for example, file association for opening .MP3 programs might be Winamp.
  8. Folders list
    Toggle button in Windows Explorer for Windows 2000 and XP that displays the file structure on the left side of the window. In Windows Vista and 7, the folders list is active by default.
  9. interface
    Means by which a user interacts with a piece of software.
  10. login screen
    First screen of the Windows interface, used to log in to the computer system.
  11. Microsoft Management Console (MMC)
    Means of managing a system, introduced by Microsoft with Windows 2000. The MMC allows an Administrator to customize management tools by picking and choosing from a list of snap-ins. Available snap-ins include Device Manager, Users and Groups, and Computer Management.
  12. Network
    Group of computers that are connected and that communicate with one another for a common purpose.
  13. notification area
    Contains icons representing background processes, the system clock and volume control located by default at the right edge of the Windows taskbar. Most users call this area the system tray.
  14. page file
    Portion of the hard drive set aside by Windows to act like RAM. Also known as virtual memory or swap file.
  15. Performance
    Performance is a fundamental metric representing system responsiveness and productivity.
  16. Registry
    Complex binary file used to store configuration data about a particular system. To edit the Registry, users can use the applets found in the Control Panel or REGEDIT.EXE or REGEDT32.EXE.
  17. Reliability and Performance Monitor
    A console that includes various tools for tuning and monitoring system performance and resources activities of CPU, disks, network, memory and other resources.
  18. root keys
    Five main categories in the Windows Registry
  19. services
    a long-running executable that performs specific functions and which is designed not to require user intervention. Windows services can be configured to start when the operating system is booted and run in the background as long as Windows is running, or they can be started manually when required.
  20. System Tools
    Menu containing tools such as System Information and Disk Defragmenter, accessed by selecting Start |Programs or All Programs | Accessories | System Tools.
  21. SystemRoot
    Tech name given to the folder in which Windows has been installed. SystemRoot by default is C:\WINNT in Windows 2000, while Windows XP and Vista's SystemRoot defaults to C:\WINDOWS.
  22. taskbar
    Contains the Start button, the system tray, the Quick Launch bar, and buttons for running applications located by default at the bottom of the desktop.
  23. transparency
    Visual representation of the computer on the monitor that makes sense to the people using the computer, through which the user can interact with the computer.
  24. User's Files
    Windows Vista's redux of the My Documents folder structure. It is divided into several folders such as Documents, Pictures, Music, and Video.
  25. Welcome screen
    Login screen for Windows XP; enables users to select their particular user account by clicking on their user picture.
  26. Windows Explorer
    Windows utility that enables you to manipulate files and folders stored on the drives in your computer.
  27. x64
    Describes 64-bit operating systems and software.
  28. x86
    Describes 32-bit operating systems and software.
  29. address bus
    Wires leading from the CPU to the memory controller chip (usually the Northbridge) that enable the CPU to address RAM. Also used by the CPU for I/O addressing. Like a post office box, each memory location has a distinct number or address; the address bus provides the means by which the microprocessor can access every location in memory.
  30. arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
    CPU logic circuits that perform basic arithmetic (add, subtract, multiply, and divide).
  31. backside bus
    Set of wires that connect the CPU to Level 2 cache. Some buses run at the full speed of the CPU, whereas others run at a fraction.
  32. binary
    The binary numeral system or base-2 number system, represents numeric values using two symbols, 0 and 1.
  33. bit
    Single binary digit. Also, any device that can be in an on or off state.
  34. byte
    Unit of eight bits; fundamental data unit of personal computers. Storing the equivalent of one character, the byte is also the basic unit of measurement for computer storage.
  35. cache
    Special area of RAM that stores the data most frequently accessed from the hard drive. Cache memory can optimize the use of your systems.
  36. central processing unit (CPU)
    Brain of the computer. Microprocessor that handles primary calculations for the computer. CPUs are known by names such as Core i5 and Phenom.
  37. clock-multiplying CPU
    CPU that takes the incoming clock signal and multiples it inside the CPU to let the internal circuitry of the CPU run faster.
  38. clock cycle
    Single charge to the clock wire of a CPU.
  39. clock speed
    Speed at which a CPU executes instructions, measured in MHz or GHz. In modern CPUs, the internal speed is a multiple of the external speed.
  40. clock wire
    Charge on the CLK wire to tell the CPU that another piece of information is waiting to be processed.
  41. dual-core
    Dual-core CPUs have two execution units on the same physical chip but share caches and RAM.
  42. dynamic RAM (DRAM)
    Memory used to store data in most personal computers. DRAM stores each bit in a "cell" composed of a transistor and a capacitor. Because the capacitor in a DRAM cell can only hold a charge for a few milliseconds, DRAM must be continually refreshed, or rewritten, to retain its data.
  43. external data bus (EDB)
    Primary data highway of all computers. Everything in your computer is tied either directly or indirectly to the external data bus. (See also frontside bus and backside bus.)
  44. floating point unit (FPU)
    Formal term for math coprocessor (also called a numeric processor) circuitry in- side a CPU. A math coprocessor calculates by using a floating point math (which allows for decimals). Before the Intel 80486, FPUs were separate chips from the CPU.
  45. frontside bus
    Wires that connect the CPU to the main system RAM. Generally running at speeds of 66-133MHz. Distinct from the expansion bus and the backside bus, though it shares wires with the former.
  46. machine language
    Binary instruction code that is understood by the CPU.
  47. instruction set
    All of the machine-language commands that a particular CPU is designed to understand.
  48. memory
    Device or medium for temporary storage of programs and data during program execution. Synonymous with storage, although it most frequently refers to the internal storage of a computer that can be directly addressed by operating instructions.