Profession of Nursing

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  1. The art of utilizing the environment of the client to assist in recovery.
  2. The diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential haelth problems.
  3. Profession with a unique body of knowledge, the goal of which is to assist the individual family or group
  4. Opened the first general hospital.
  5. Father of medicine
    Developed assessment standards
  6. Middle ages (Holy Wars):
    Crusades recruited men into nursing
  7. Reformation:
    • Severe setbacks in healthcare and nursing.
    • Dispersion of religious orders
    • Deterioration of hospital conditions
    • Women subordinate staying home
    • Number of qualified nurses decline
  8. 18th Century:
    • Prevention became objective.
    • Poor sanitation practices
    • Decreased standard of living
    • Working conditions poor
    • Nursing considered last resort
    • Nurses portrayed as criminal of low moral standards, alcoholics.
  9. Founder of modern nursing.
    Florence Nightingale
  10. 19th Century:
    • Improved health laws
    • Reformed hospital standards
    • Established training for nurses (NIghtingale School of Nursing)
    • Stubborn and unyielding.
  11. American Civil War:
    Great need for hospitals and nurses
  12. Established Nurse Corps of US Army
    Dorthea Dix
  13. Founded American Red Cross
    Clara Barton
  14. Nursing in 19th Century:
    AMA committee on training of nurses - hospital schools of nursing.
  15. America's first trained nurse graduated from Bellevue Hospital Training School in NYC
    Linda Richards
  16. 20th Century:
    • Emerging of professional organizations
    • PUblications of nursing journals

    1923: Goldmark Report - encouraged financial support for nursing students

    1960's: nursing seen as process rather than end

    1965: Lysaught report - called for clarification of roles and responsibilities in relation to others on the health care team.
  17. First African American professional nurse
    Mary Mahoney
  18. *Opened the first public health nursing service - Henry Street Settlement NYC lower east side. (2)
    Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster
  19. Wrote one of the first nursing textbooks and first editor of AJN.
    Lavinia Dock
  20. Advocated racial equality
    Martha Franklin
  21. WWI - Bellevue School of Nursing and ANA president, opposed physicians putting unttrained nurse aides at bedside.
    Jane Delano
  22. Coined the phrase "birth control" and began writing about contraceptives.
    Margaret Sanger
  23. Advocated improved economic security - malpractice insurance, increased salaries and benefits.
    Shirley Titus
  24. Frontier Nursing Service - health care to rural areas - first midwifery school
    Mary Breckinridge
  25. Nursing is not just collection of specific skills.

    Characteristics of profession:
    • Requires extended education
    • Has theoretical body of knowledge leading to defined skills, abilities and norms
    • Provides specific service
    • Have autonomy in decision making and practice
    • Has code of ethics for practice
  26. Licensed practical (vocational nurses)
    • 1 year clock program
    • Perform technical skills under supervision of RN
  27. RN Education Programs:
    Diploma: 3 years linked to hospital extensive clinical practice

    ADN: 2 years began 1952 following extensive study in order to answer nursing shortage

    BSN: 4 years began 1901 first University based school - increased emphasis on research, leadership, community and management
  28. Advanced Education:
    Masters: Required for faculty in RN programs, some supervisors, nurse practitioners, advance practice

    • Doctorate: PhD - doctor of philosophy
    • DN - doctorate in Nursing
    • EDD - doctorate in education
    • DSN - doctorate of science in Nursing
  29. Licensure:
    • All RN programs accredited by same agencies
    • NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination) exam prepared and administered by State Board of Nursing
    • Same exam given over entire USA in order to provide a standardized minimum knowledge base for clients.
  30. Nursing theories:
    A conceptualization of some aspect of nursing communicated for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting and/or prescribing nursing care.

    Provides a perspective to view client situations "a way to organize data" and a method to analyze and interpret information.
  31. 1911 major professional organization to improve and foster high standards.

    Involved in lobbying and protecting.

    Has certification exams.
    American Nursing Association
  32. 1912 improvement of nursing education, health care delivery

    Membership NOT limited to RN's involved in accreditation

    Has certification exams.
    National League of Nursing
  33. Improve standards of practice in specific specialty.
    Specialty areas
  34. Texas Nursing Association
    • Founded in 1907
    • Wrote one of the first Nurse Practice Acts in the nation
    • Created a multi state license currently 22 states in compact
    • Anyone using the title "nurse" must have a license
  35. Every state has own board.

    Responsible for creating and enforcing Nurse Practice Act for the state

    Responsible for writing and administering NCLEX for graduates in the state.

    Involved in accreditation.
    State board
  36. First written in 1909

    *Mission is to protect and promote the welfare of the people of TX by ensuring that each nurse is competent to practice safely.

    Protects the public
    Nurse Practice Act
  37. Any person "practicing or offering to practice professional nursing in this state for compensation" is required to have a license.
    Nurse Practice Act
  38. *Continuing Education:
    • Formal
    • Organized educational programs
    • Short term
    • Designed with some variety for group
    • Required for license renewal
    • Offers CEUs
  39. RN needs how many CEU every two years?
  40. Inservice Education:
    • Less formal
    • Specific for institution or unit
    • Instruction or training for specific need
    • Offered by institution

    Example: showing how to operate a new IV pump
  41. Nursing Practice:
    ANA 1955 official definition of nursing practice performance for compensation of any act in the observation, care and counsel of ill.

  42. Provide comfort and support, involves listening, evaluating and intervening.
  43. Promotion of health and healing
  44. Coordinates and synchronizes any services that affect patient care.
  45. Standards of Practice:
    • Available from both ANA and specialty organizations.
    • *Provide method to assure clients they are receiving high quality care
    • Serve as objective guidelines
    • Increases nurses accountability
    • Levels of care demonstrated by critical thinking and nursing process
  46. Standards of Professional Performance:
    • Describe competent professional behavior.
    • Objective juidelines to be accountable for their actions, their clients and their peers.
    • assure clients they are receiving high quality care.
    • Utilized if legal dispute arises regarding a nurse practicing appropriately.
  47. Code of Ethics:
    • Philosophical ideals of right and wrong.
    • Incorporate own values and ethics
    • Type of nurse you will be and how you function wihtin the discipline.
  48. Future trends:
    • Evidence Based Practice
    • Competency
    • Informatics
  49. Most current, effective, state of the art care. Provides nurse with evidence based data.
    Evidence Based Practice
  50. Emphasize importance of public service and developing ethically responsible behaviors.
  51. Makes work easier, but does not replace nurse's judgement.
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Profession of Nursing
2012-02-17 23:34:55
Profession Nursing

Profession of Nursing
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