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The art of utilizing the environment of the client to assist in recovery.
The diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential haelth problems.
Profession with a unique body of knowledge, the goal of which is to assist the individual family or group
Opened the first general hospital.
Father of medicine
Developed assessment standards
Middle ages (Holy Wars):
Crusades recruited men into nursing
- Severe setbacks in healthcare and nursing.
- Dispersion of religious orders
- Deterioration of hospital conditions
- Women subordinate staying home
- Number of qualified nurses decline
- Prevention became objective.
- Poor sanitation practices
- Decreased standard of living
- Working conditions poor
- Nursing considered last resort
- Nurses portrayed as criminal of low moral standards, alcoholics.
Founder of modern nursing.
- Improved health laws
- Reformed hospital standards
- Established training for nurses (NIghtingale School of Nursing)
- Stubborn and unyielding.
American Civil War:
Great need for hospitals and nurses
Established Nurse Corps of US Army
Founded American Red Cross
Nursing in 19th Century:
AMA committee on training of nurses - hospital schools of nursing.
America's first trained nurse graduated from Bellevue Hospital Training School in NYC
1923: Goldmark Report - encouraged financial support for nursing students
1960's: nursing seen as process rather than end
1965: Lysaught report - called for clarification of roles and responsibilities in relation to others on the health care team.
- Emerging of professional organizations
- PUblications of nursing journals
First African American professional nurse
*Opened the first public health nursing service - Henry Street Settlement NYC lower east side. (2)
Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster
Wrote one of the first nursing textbooks and first editor of AJN.
Advocated racial equality
WWI - Bellevue School of Nursing and ANA president, opposed physicians putting unttrained nurse aides at bedside.
Coined the phrase "birth control" and began writing about contraceptives.
Advocated improved economic security - malpractice insurance, increased salaries and benefits.
Frontier Nursing Service - health care to rural areas - first midwifery school
Nursing is not just collection of specific skills.
Characteristics of profession:
- Requires extended education
- Has theoretical body of knowledge leading to defined skills, abilities and norms
- Provides specific service
- Have autonomy in decision making and practice
- Has code of ethics for practice
Licensed practical (vocational nurses)
- 1 year clock program
- Perform technical skills under supervision of RN
RN Education Programs:
Diploma: 3 years linked to hospital extensive clinical practice
ADN: 2 years began 1952 following extensive study in order to answer nursing shortage
BSN: 4 years began 1901 first University based school - increased emphasis on research, leadership, community and management
Masters: Required for faculty in RN programs, some supervisors, nurse practitioners, advance practice
- Doctorate: PhD - doctor of philosophy
- DN - doctorate in Nursing
- EDD - doctorate in education
- DSN - doctorate of science in Nursing
- All RN programs accredited by same agencies
- NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination) exam prepared and administered by State Board of Nursing
- Same exam given over entire USA in order to provide a standardized minimum knowledge base for clients.
A conceptualization of some aspect of nursing communicated for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting and/or prescribing nursing care.
Provides a perspective to view client situations "a way to organize data" and a method to analyze and interpret information.
1911 major professional organization to improve and foster high standards.
Involved in lobbying and protecting.
Has certification exams.
American Nursing Association
1912 improvement of nursing education, health care delivery
Membership NOT limited to RN's involved in accreditation
Has certification exams.
National League of Nursing
Improve standards of practice in specific specialty.
Texas Nursing Association
- Founded in 1907
- Wrote one of the first Nurse Practice Acts in the nation
- Created a multi state license currently 22 states in compact
- Anyone using the title "nurse" must have a license
Every state has own board.
Responsible for creating and enforcing Nurse Practice Act for the state
Responsible for writing and administering NCLEX for graduates in the state.
Involved in accreditation.
First written in 1909
*Mission is to protect and promote the welfare of the people of TX by ensuring that each nurse is competent to practice safely.
Protects the public
Nurse Practice Act
Any person "practicing or offering to practice professional nursing in this state for compensation" is required to have a license.
Nurse Practice Act
- Organized educational programs
- Short term
- Designed with some variety for group
- Required for license renewal
- Offers CEUs
RN needs how many CEU every two years?
Example: showing how to operate a new IV pump
- Less formal
- Specific for institution or unit
- Instruction or training for specific need
- Offered by institution
ANA 1955 official definition of nursing practice performance for compensation of any act in the observation, care and counsel of ill.
Provide comfort and support, involves listening, evaluating and intervening.
Promotion of health and healing
Coordinates and synchronizes any services that affect patient care.
Standards of Practice:
- Available from both ANA and specialty organizations.
- *Provide method to assure clients they are receiving high quality care
- Serve as objective guidelines
- Increases nurses accountability
- Levels of care demonstrated by critical thinking and nursing process
Standards of Professional Performance:
- Describe competent professional behavior.
- Objective juidelines to be accountable for their actions, their clients and their peers.
- assure clients they are receiving high quality care.
- Utilized if legal dispute arises regarding a nurse practicing appropriately.
Code of Ethics:
- Philosophical ideals of right and wrong.
- Incorporate own values and ethics
- Type of nurse you will be and how you function wihtin the discipline.
- Evidence Based Practice
Most current, effective, state of the art care. Provides nurse with evidence based data.
Evidence Based Practice
Emphasize importance of public service and developing ethically responsible behaviors.
Makes work easier, but does not replace nurse's judgement.