OB test 1

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  1. Conception
    • the union of a single egg and sperm, marks the beginning of pregnancy.
    • diploid number is restored
  2. gamete
    egg and sperm formation
  3. ovulation
    release of egg
  4. fertilization
    union of the gametes
  5. mitosis
    body cells replicate to yield two cells with the same genetic makup as the parent cell. First the cell makes a copy of DNA and then it divides; eacg daughter cell recieve one copy of the genetic material.
  6. Meiosis
    the process ny which germ cells divide and decrease their chromosomal number by half, produces gametes
  7. oogenesis
    the process of egg(ovum) formation, begins during fetal life in the female.
  8. zygote
    the united egg and sperm
  9. spermatogenesis
    when a male reaches puberty-testes then under go spematogenis
  10. spermatocytes
    the cells that undrgo meiosis in the male
  11. fertilization
    • when the sperm successfully penatrates the membrane surrounding the ovum, both sperm and ovum are enclosed within the membrane and the membrane become impenetrable(zona reaction).
    • Mitotic cellular replication (cleavage) begins as the zygote travels the length of the uterine tube into the uterus
  12. Morula
    a solid ball of cells, is produced within 3 days and still surrounded by the protective zona pellucida
  13. trophoblast
    outer layer
  14. embryoblast
    give rise to the embryo
  15. blastocyst
    when the cavity becomes recognizable, the whole structure its the developing embryo
  16. implantation
    btwn 6-10 days after conception, the trophoblast secretes enzymes that enable it to burrow into the endometrium until the entire blastocyst is covered.

    placenta is form
  17. chorionic villa
    vascular process that obtain o2 and nutrients from the maternal bloodstreem and dispose of Co2 and waste products into the maternal blood.
  18. decidua basalis
    the portion directly under the blastocyst, where the chorionic villa tap into the maternal blood vessels.
  19. ectoderm
    give rise to the epidermis, the glans , the nails, hair, CNS, PNS
  20. mesoderm
    dvlps into teeth, muscles(skeletal, smoothm cardiac), connective tissue
  21. endoderm
    give rise to the digestive and respiratory tract, bladder
  22. embryo
    organ systems and the main external features. succeptible to malformation. lasts from day 15- 8 weeks of conception
  23. chorion
    cover fetal side of the placenta. contains major umbilical blood vessels
  24. amnion
    inner cell membrane
  25. amniotic fluid functions
    • 1. constant body temp
    • 2. source of oral fluid and repositor for waste and assists in maintenance of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis
    • 3. freedom of movement and musculoskeletal dvlp

    4. cushions fetus
  26. oligohydramnios
    having less then 300ml of amniotic fluid. its associated withe renal abnormality
  27. hydramnios
    having 2l of amniotic fluid. its associsted with gi malformastiom
  28. function of yolk sac
    aids in transferring maternal nutrients and oxygen, which have diffused through the chorion to the embryo.
  29. whartons jelly
    connective tissue, which prevents compression of the blood vessels and ensures continued nourishment of the embyro/fetus
  30. nurchal cord
    cord is wrapped around the fetal neck
  31. battledore placenta
    peripheral location is less common in reference to the umbilical cord
  32. hcg
    • human chorionic gonadotropin
    • detcted 8-10 after conception
    • hcg percerves the function of ovaian corpus luteum which ensure the continued supply of estrogen and progesterone(needed to maintaine the preg.)
  33. HCS
    • human chorionic somatomammotropin
    • stimulates the maternal metabolism to supply nutrients needed for fetal growth.
    • Increases the resistance to insulin, faciliates glucose transport across the placental membran and stimulate breast dvlp to prepare for lactation.
  34. vernixx caseosa
    protects the skin of the fetus
  35. lanugo
    very fine hair.
  36. only immunioglobin that crosses the placenta
  37. IgA
    immunoglobin that passes in the breast milk, providing passive immunity.
  38. Dizygotic Twins
    2 mature ovums are produced in one ovarian cycle, both have the potential to be fertilized by seperate sperm.

    Fraternal twins-can be the same sex of different sec and are genetically no more alike then siblling borm at different times.
  39. Monzygotic twins

    one fertilized ovum which then divides. They are the same sex and have the genotype
  40. conjoined twin
    incomplete embryonic division at 13-15 days
  41. teratogens
    environmental substances or exposures that result in function or structural disablility.

    drugs, chemicals, infections, exposure to radiation, and certain maternal conditions diabetes and PKU
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OB test 1
OB Test chapter 12
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