Ecology Lecture Test (1)

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Ecology Lecture Test (1)
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2012-02-18 20:09:42
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Lecture Test 1
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  1. Oikos
    Home
  2. Ecology - Define
    the study of relationships of organisms to their environments (biotic and abiotic)
  3. 2 benefits of Eco
    • 1-aquatic insects reflect quality of water
    • 2-dust bowls in the 1930s could have been prevented but instead occured via ignorance of ecological principles
  4. Is Ecology a science? How so?
    • it is based on testable hypotheses
    • data are gathered and analyzed
    • study can be replicated
    • errors can be found and corrected
  5. The unifying theme of all the undertaken levels of Ecology is:
    The inter-relatedness of componets of the system: affecting one thing will affect many
  6. Environment
    the surroundings of an organism (biotic and abiotic)
  7. Habitat
    the surroundings of an organism (biotic and abiotic)
  8. Microhabitat
    A sublevel within a habitat
  9. List an example of microhabitat
    A sand darter (fish) is aquatic, but is found only in flowing water over sand
  10. List two examples of broad subdivisions within a habitat
    Aquatic and Terrestrial
  11. Define Law of Tolerance
    The range of variation in which a species can survive
  12. Because tolerance ranges differ between species... What does that say about differenent habitats?
    What causes different habitats to support different communities?
  13. Optimum range
    Although a species may survive in a range, individuals are usally most successful within a smaller __________.
  14. The optimum
    The _________ for one enbironmental variable may not be obtainable if another important ecological factor doesn't operate at that level.
  15. A result of shifts outside the range of tolerance
    • 1) Organisms will die, that is, go extrinct, from that area.
    • 2)Organisms will survive if they have a stage within their life that can withstand the change (ex: insect pupae)
    • 3)Organisms will survive if they can move to a protected microhabitats (ex: herps, bats, rodents in caves or under frost)
    • 4)Organisms will survive if it can acclimate
  16. Define re-invade
    Organisms go extinct from an area. Their population will remain extinct until they can ___________.
  17. 1) Organisms will die, that is, go extrinct, from that area.
    2)Organisms will survive if they have a stage within their life that can withstand the change (ex: insect pupae)
    3)Organisms will survive if they can move to a protected microhabitats (ex: herps, bats, rodents in caves or under frost)
    4)Organisms will survive if it can acclimate
    A result of shifts outside the range of tolerance
  18. Define acclimate
    Acclimation is a gradual change into new environmental conditions: aquarium fish placed in a bag for transport
  19. Some shifts outside the tolerance range are extreme but _________: these may be more important than ________ shifts because you only have to kill an organismTemporary, Seasonal
    Temporary, Seasonal
  20. Define limiting factor
    A limiting factor or limiting resource is a factor that controls a population's growth, such as organism growth or species population, size, or distribution.

    ex: algae phosphate
  21. Define compensation
    A limiting factor may be over come through compensation. For example, an organism may prefer cold water, however, if the the O2 content gets to be too low, that organism may prefer to move to warmer water. It is compensating.
  22. Define synergism
    • The combined effects of 2 factors is greater than their sum.
    • This can favor or exterminate populations, depending on the effect.
  23. Ecological indicators.
    • Are used to communicate information about ecosystems
    • Organisms with a narrow tolerance range for some factor of interest
  24. Ecological indicators
    Valid indicator
    indicator that occurs only within the condition it is meant to indicate (it has good fidelity)
  25. Ecological indicatiors
    Significant indicator
    an indicator that is very likely to occur (it is not rare) if the conditions it indicaties are present (it has good constancy)
  26. Define Energy Balance
    What would happen without it?
    • Energy is the ability to do work
    • Oganism will die.
  27. Energy is transferred through the ecosystem according to physical principles called ___________________________.
    The laws of thermodynamics
  28. Define 1st law of thermodynamics
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed in form
  29. Define 2nd law of thermodynamics
    in the transfer of energy, some will be lost as heat
  30. The unit to measure heat is _________.
    lil 'c' calorie.
  31. The amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree C, is 1____________.
    1 lil 'c' calorie
  32. ________ is the unit we talk about when dieting. It contains 1000 lil 'c' calories.
    The Big 'c' Calorie
  33. Define autotrophs
    produce their own food from inorgaic materials
  34. Most autotrophs produce their food by using ligthe energy to store chemical energy. These are __________. Some use chemical reactions. These are ____________.
    Photosynthetic, Chemosynthetic
  35. __________ puts together carbon dioxide and water to form organic molecules.
    Photosynthesis. What does it do?
  36. Equation of photosynthesis
    6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2 (by product)
  37. _________ are organisms that depend on autotrophs for their food (directly and indirectly)
    Heterotrophs. What are they?
  38. Heterotrophs. What are they?
    _________ are organisms that depend on autotrophs for their food (directly and indirectly)
  39. ________ is the process in which complex molecules are reduced to simple ones, releasing energy tied up in molecular bonds.
    Respiration. What is it?
  40. Respiration. What is it?
    _________ is the process in which complex molecules are reduced to simple ones, releasing energy tied up in molecular bonds.
  41. There must be fewer heterotrophs due to ___________
    2nd law of thermodynamics
  42. Energy lost as heat follows the ___________
    2nd law of thermodynamics
  43. List three ways energy is used/lost within an organism
    • 1] lost as heat
    • 2]lost in feces and urine and sweat
    • 3]rest is available for work
  44. ___________ is the energy that is available for work
    Assimilated energy
  45. Assimilated energy. What is it?
    ___________ is the energy that is available for work
  46. ____________ energy used just to stay alive.
    Standard metabolism
  47. Standard Meatbolism
    ____________ energy used just to stay alive.
  48. For ___________________ animals (mammals and birds) the main factor affecting standard metabolic rate (SMR) is size.
    Homeothermic
  49. For homeothermic animals (mammals and birds) the main factor affecting standard metabolic rate (SMR) is _________.
    Size
  50. SMR is ________ as the animal gets bigger, but not proportionately.
    Greater
  51. The main factor affecting standard metabolism is the _________________.
    surface area/volume ratio.
  52. Animal A has a volume of 100untis3 but a surface area of and a surface area of 230units2. Animal B has a volume of 100untis3 and a surface area of 340units2. Which has the lower SMR?
    Animal A. Why?
  53. ______________ are uses of outside energy to aid an orgainism.
    Energy subsidies.
  54. Define energy subsidies and list a few examples.
    • uses of outside energy to aid an orgaism
    • birds use air currents to soar
    • fresh water organisms use energy of flowing water
  55. Ecological questions can examine __________ or __________ factors.
    proximate, ultimate
  56. Define a proximate factor
    a proximate factor is one that deals with the immediate cause: it is within the organism that you might seek an explanation.
  57. Define a ultimate factor
    An ultimate factor deals with the grater cause: it is within the environment or population that the answer might be found
  58. Define dispersal
    movement of individuals from their place of birth
  59. ____________ =movement of individuals from their place of birth
    Dispersal
  60. Plants can have dispersal of off spring. List some of the agents involved.
    • 1] water
    • 2] wind
    • 3] animals
    • 4] explosive projection
  61. How do animals dispersal?
    • Larval stages that swim but have sessile adult stages
    • Winged stages
    • Walking
  62. Animal dispersal is effected more by behavioral means related to genetics and the environment.
    Fact.
  63. Define emigration
    Emigration is the act of leaving one's country or region to settle in another.
  64. Define range expansion and give a few examples
    • It is dynamic, usually caused by removal of barriers or human action, or environmental change (glacial periods)
    • Humans broght starlings to NY, how they're everywhere.
    • Humans cut down eastern forests and coyotes moved eastward
  65. Define stream capture
    This allows fishes to expand ranges. Some event causes the merging of two streams.
  66. List a few examples of organismal thermal relations.
    • 1]an organism obtains heat from solar radiation, infrared and heat radiation from surroundings, through metabolism, and by convection.
    • 2]an organism loses heat by infrared and heat radiation, convection heat loss, and evaporative heat loss (sweat)
  67. Define the Law of Q10
    for every 10 degrees C greater in temperature there is a 2-3 times greater in rate of chemical processes (Metabolism in an organism)
  68. Define poikilotherm
    an organism depends on the environment for heat energy
  69. Define ectotherm
    an organism depends on the environment for heat energy
  70. Define homeotherm
    heat from metabolism warms this type of animal
  71. Define endotherm
    heat from metabolism warms this type of animal
  72. Ectotherms have an/a (advantage or disadvantage) during the winter.
    Advantage
  73. Endotherm have an/a (advantage or disadvantage) during the winter. Why is this?
    disadvantage, they must spend energy searching for ad food supply to maintain metabolic heat
  74. What is a disadvantage to being an ectotherm?
    They are slow in the morning or when it is cold. They could be eaten.
  75. These orgainisms have an energy-conservative, low-power strategy and can have a high surface/volume ratio.
    ectotherms
  76. This organism have an extravagant, high-power strategy.
    Endotherms
  77. Define hibernation
    a special strategy in which an endotherm seasonally behaves as an ectotherm.
  78. What is a "true" hibernator?
    these organisms go into a deep sleep from which it is very difficult to wake. ex: ground squirrel, wood chucks
  79. Define Carnivoran lethargy
    bears and other carnivores sometimes enter a deeper-than-normal sleep but they have not dropped body temperatrue as much and can awaken quickly
  80. Define xerophytes
    plants with the ability to grow in xeric (dry) habitats
  81. Plants with the ability to grow in xeric (dry) habitats
    xerophytes
  82. Define succulents
    Plants that are xerophytes but also have the ability to store water in fleshy tissue.
  83. Plants that are xerophytes but also have the ability to store water in fleshy tissue.
    Succulents
  84. Define phreatophytes
    • Plants that are xerophytes that also have very long roots to tap into water table
    • ex: mesquite root system may reach down 175 feet
  85. Plants that are xerophytes that also have very long roots to tap into water table. Ex: mesquite root system may reach down 175 feet
    phreatophytes
  86. Define hydrophytes
    Plants that grow in water so generally there is no problem unless the pond or creek dries.
  87. Plants that grow in water so generally there is no problem unless the pond or creek dries.
    hydrophytes
  88. What is the primary limit for hydrophytes?
    CO2 (not as much is dissolved in water)
  89. Define mesophytes
    These pants usually grow where water is not much of a problem, water conservation adaptations are minimal.
  90. Some physically wet habitats can be ___________________ due to salt concentration.
    physiologically dry, the salt concentration makes water osmoctically unavailable
  91. Define halophytes
    Plants that have adaptations that allow them to live the water with high salt concentrations.
  92. Plants that have adaptations that allow them to live the water with high salt concentrations.
    Define halophytes
  93. List 3 ways an organism can gain water
    • drinking
    • metabolic water
    • water from food
  94. List 3 ways an organism can lose water
    • urine
    • feces
    • evaporation from skin and lungs
  95. List and describe two ways xeric-adapted animals conserve water.
    • Behavioral-it is active at night when cooler, dig burrows that trap respiratory moisture, seek shade
    • Physiological-intestine resorbs water before elimination of feces; loop of Henle in kidneys especially long to resorb water before elimination of urine.
  96. Marine invertebrates have no problem wth water conservation because their body fluid is _________ compared to their surroundings.
    Isotonic
  97. Freshwater organisms must work to retain salts because their surroundings have a lower salt concentration. They are __________.
    Hypertonic
  98. Organisms has lower salt than environment so must exrete execess salt (marine vertebrates) - usually by salt glands on gills, beaks of marine birds and snout of reptiles.
    Hypotonic
  99. List three reseasons why light is important.
    • photosynthesis
    • vitamin D production
    • orientation and perception of the world
  100. Define shade tolerance
    ability of plants to survive in reduced light
  101. Ability of plants to survive in reduced light
    Define shade tolerance
  102. Besides reducing light, list three other things that "shade" can do?
    • Wind break
    • Increased humidity
    • Moderate temperature
  103. Define photoperiod
    length of light and dark portions of a day - varies seasonally (solstice is long and short, equinox is equal)
  104. Does photopheriod effect temperate regions or tropical regions more? Explain.
    The effect of photoperiod is greater in temperate regions because it is more pronounced. Tropical regions use cue like rain fall.
  105. Describe circadian rhythm.
    The actual effect of photoperiod is tied to a circadian rhythm - the cycle of responsiveness to stimuli over a 24-hour period.
  106. Describe "soil"
    Soil is a complex system of mineral, organic, gas, water, and living components. It is the balance of these materials that determine the organisms that live there.
  107. Soil forms three ways
    • 1]Mechanical weathering
    • 2]Chemical weathering
    • 3]Bilogical weathering
  108. Define Mechanical Weathering
    wind and water crack parent rock
  109. Define chemical weathering
    pH factors causing dissolution and leaching
  110. Define bilogical weathering
    earthworms and other life move material about, aerate or further break up or mix soil
  111. Define soil profile. And explain why it is the way it is.
    soil formation usually begins from the exposed surface (top), so soil develops a vertical structure called a soil profile, which can be recognized in 3 primary layers.
  112. soil formation usually begins from the exposed surface (top), so soil develops a vertical structure called a ______________, which can be recognized in 3 primary layers.
    Soil profile
  113. Describe the first of the primary layers.
    Topsoil (A horizon), has organic material and weathered mineral material.
  114. Describe the second of the primary layers in soil.
    B horizon has almost no organic material and less weathered mineral material
  115. Describe the second of the primary layers in soil
    C horizon has generally unaltered parent material
  116. How does the type of parent material effect the type of vegetation that grows there?
    The type of parent material determines the kinds of minerals available which may support, or be limiting to, vegetation. Furthermore, the type of vegetation affects soil formation depending on which meneral are absorbed by them.
  117. Particle sizes determine soil ________, thus its ability to hold moisture
    Texture
  118. What determines soil texture?
    Particle size
  119. In reguards to soil, _________ and _________ are small so they are ablel to hold moisture well making it fertile.
    silt and clay
  120. In reguards to soil, ____________ soils are well aerated but do not hold moisture well and may be infertile.
    sandy
  121. Forest fires, in the past, have been given a bad reputation. Why is this wrong?
    Fire is important in the development and maintenance of several ecosystems, naturally started by lightning strikes. Some plants are so adapted as to require fire for successful reproduction. Fire removes vegetation so allows more light to the Fire aids germination of seeds that germinate on bare ground. Fire-darkened souil also absorbs more heat and becomes dries, and erosion may be increased.
  122. Sections of trees several hundred years old have been used to estimate ___________________ and ________________ due to scarring.
    fire frequency, dicrection
  123. __________ fires - are "cool" , may scorch tree bases, kill some stems, but mostly consumes litter and herbs.
    Surface
  124. Define surface fires and tell why they are important.
    They are "cool" , may scorch tree bases, kill some stems, but mostly consumes litter and herbs. They may kill above-ground stems of herbs so these can sprout again from underground parts.
  125. ________ fires - subterranean, burns slowly often where there is a thick litter - hot, kills most plants, even burns bogs as it dries peat in front of it.
    Ground
  126. Ground fires. What are they?
    • ________ fires - subterranean, burns slowly often where there is a thick
    • litter - hot, kills most plants, even burns bogs as it dries peat in
    • front of it.
  127. _________ fires - in dense woody vegetation, spreads through canopy killing vegtation from ground up.
    Crown
  128. Crown fires. What are they?
    _________ fires - in dense woody vegetation, spreads through canopy killing vegtation from ground up.
  129. The effects of fires depend on.............
    The probability of a fire occurring, thus the adaptation of plants to fire frequency.
  130. A forest with trees with multiple trunks indicates _________________.
    Fires
  131. A forest containing mostly trees with thick barks may suggest _________________.
    relatively frequent fires

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