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Diagnostic test that measures the electical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation.
2. The resulting record is called an electromyogram.
3. Electromyography is most frequently used when people have symptoms of weakness, and examination shows impaired muscle strength.
4. An electromyogram measures electrical conductivity in a MUSCLE.
5. An electromyelogram measures electical conductivity in a NERVE.
1. This is a diagnostic procedure
for testing and recording neuromuscular activity
by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries the fiber to and from the muscle.
2. Also known as nerve conduction studies (NCS)
- 3. Primary goal of this examination is to determine the site of:
- ......a. A nerve lesion or
- ......b. Muscle pathology.
1. Also known as an anticholingeric
2. Administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder.
3. Example: Atropine is an antispasmodic that can be administer preoperatively to relax smooth muscles during surgery.
Skeletal muscle relaxant
1. Administered to relax certain muscles
and to relieve the stiffness, pain
, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries.
- 2. These medications act on the central nervous system and may have a negative interaction with:
- ......a. Alcohol
- ......b. Some antidepressants
A drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles.
These drugs are used as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery to cause skeletal muscles to relax.
1. The study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment.
2. Term usually applied to the design of equipment and workspaces, with the goal of reducing injuries, strain, and stress.
Consists of activities to promote recovery and rehabilitation to assist patients in normalizing their ability to perform the activities of daily living (ADLs.)
Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
- These activities include:
- .....a. Bathing
- .....b. Grooming
- .....c. Brushing teeth
- .....d. Eating
- .....e. Dressing
- .....f. Performing patient's customary work or recreational activites
- 1. Treatment to:
- .....a. Prevent disability
- .....b. Restore functioning
- 2. Through the use of:
- .....a. Exercise
- .....b. Heat
- .....c. Massage
- .....d. Other methods
- 3. With the goals of improving:
- .....a. Circulation
- .....b. Flexibility
- .....c. Muscle strength
- Specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of condition such as:
- ......a. Fibromyalgia
- ......b. Myofascial pain syndrome
- ......c. Movement restrictions
- ......d. Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ)
- ......e. Carpal tunnel syndrome
Utilizes high-frequency sound waves
to treat muscle injuries
by generating heat deep within the muscle tissue.
- 2. This heat increases the flow of blood to the target area to:
- .....a. Ease pain
- .....b. Reduce muscle spasms
- .....c. Accelerate healing
The most common first aid treatment of muscle injuries
is known by the acronym RICE
Rest and ice are recommended for the first few days after injury to ease pain (and swelling.)
Compression, such as wrapping with a stretch bandage,and elevation help to minimize swelling.
After the frist few days, as the pain decreases, using heat, accompanies by stretching and light exercises, helps to bring blood to the injured area to speed healing.
Surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure.
Without this procedure, the pressures causes a loss of circulation that damages the affected tissues.
Treatment of compartment syndrome.
Surgical repair of fascia
Surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone.
Tenodesis is the opposite of tenolysis.
Tenolysis or Tendolysis
The release of a tendon from adhesions.
Note: The opposite of tendesis.
Tenectomy or tenonectomy
Surgical resection of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath.
Surgical removal of tissue or part or all of an organ.
Tenoplasty or tendinoplasty
Surgical repair of a tendon
Surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon.
Tenotomy or tendotomy
Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle, such as strabismus.
Surgical excision of a portion of a muscle
Surgical repair of a muscle
Surgical suturing a muscle wound
Surgical incision into a muscle
Deep tendon reflexes
1. Test with a reflex hammer
that is used to strike a tendon.
2. No response, or an abnormal response
, can indicate a disruption of the nerve supply
to the involved muscles.
- 3. Reflexes are also lost:
- .....a. In deep coma
- .....b. Because of medication such as heavy sedation.
- 4. Examples:
- .....a. Patellar reflex
- .....b. Achilles tendon reflex
Range of motion testing (ROM)
- 1. Diagnostic procedure to evaluate:
- .....a. Joint mobility
- .....b. Muscle strength
- .....c. Results are expressed in degrees.
- 2. Range of motion exercises are used to increase:
- .....a. Strength
- .....b. Flexibility
- .....c. Mobility
Involuntary response to a stimulus.