3 Abnormal Findings of Cardiac Auscultation:
1. Upon auscultation of the carotid artery, a bruit indicates turbulence due to local vascular cause, e.g. atherosclerotic narrowing.
2. Premature beat: an isolated beat is early or a pattern occurs in which every third or fourth beat sounds early.
3. Both heart sounds are diminished with increased air or tissue between the heart and your stethoscope, such as emphysema, obesity and pericardial fluid.