Project Management

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radarcyn
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136140
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Project Management
Updated:
2012-03-16 23:17:24
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PMP Project Management
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Study for the PMP exam
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  1. What are some typical subsidiary project management plans that could be included in a project management plan?
    • Project scope management plan
    • Requirements management plan
    • Schedule management plan
    • Cost management plan
    • Quality management plan
    • Process improvement plan
    • Human resource plan
    • Communication management plan
    • Risk management plan
    • Procurement management plan
  2. What are the outputs of the Initiating process group?
    • Project Charter
    • Stakeholder register
    • Stakeholder management plan
  3. What are the key project baselines?
    Scope, schedule, cost
  4. __________ is a measure of how well characteristics match requirements (errors\defects versus no obvious defects).
    Quality
  5. _____________ is assigned based on the characteristics of a product or service (few features or many features).
    Grade
  6. List the inputs to the Plan Quality process.
    • Scope baseline
    • Stakeholder register
    • Cost performance baseline
    • Schedule baseline
    • Risk register
    • Enterprise environmental factors
    • Organizational process assets
  7. List the tools and techniques used during the Plan Quality process.
    • Cost-benefit analysis
    • Cost of quality
    • Control charts
    • Benchmarking
    • Design of experiments
    • Statistical sampling
    • Flowcharting
    • Proprietary quality management methodology
    • Additional quality planning tools
  8. List the outputs of the Plan Quality process.
    • Quality management plan
    • Quality metrics
    • Quality checklists
    • Process improvement plan
    • Project document updates
  9. Define quality.
    The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements.
  10. Which quality theory is identifed: Processes are improved, mastered, and then further improvement is identified. Includes "quality circles" as a group oriented means of developing ideas.
    Continuous improvement or Kaizen
  11. Which quality theory is identified: an improvement is planned, completed, measured, and then further improvement acted upon.
    The Deming Cycle or Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle
  12. Which quality theory is identified: A statistical measure of quality equating to 3.4 defects per million items. If defects can be measured, a process can be put in place to eliminate them.
    Six Sigma
  13. Which quality theory is identified: Fourteen points of management that call for awareness of quality in all processes.
    Total Quality Management (TQM)
  14. Which quality theory is identified: An award established by the US Congress to promote quality awareness.
    Malcolm Baldridge Award
  15. Which quality theory is identified: Assess an organization's project management maturity level against general best practices.
    OPM3 (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model)
  16. Which quality theory is identified: Five level of capability must exist: initial, repeatable, defined, managed, and optimized.
    CMM (capability maturity model)
  17. In what ways for quality and project management align?
    • Customer satisfaction through understanding and managing expectations
    • Prevention over inspection as it is cheaper to prevent than repair defects
    • Management responsibility is required for success
    • Continuous improvement as processes are improved, mastered and then further improvements identified.
  18. What are the three primary types of cost associated with the cost of quality?
    • Prevention costs
    • Inspection costs
    • Failure costs (internal and external costs)
  19. Which two types of cost associated with the cost of quality can be viewed as addressing the cost of conformance, such as training, prototyping, design reviews, and testing?
    • Prevention costs
    • Inspection costs
  20. Which type of cost associated with the cost of quality includes bug fixes, rework, cost of late delivery and customer complaints?
    Failure costs
  21. Which quality management process includes the following key activity: Determing relevant quality standards
    Quality Planning
  22. Which quality management process includes the following key activity: Determining how to apply standards
    Quality planning
  23. Which quality management process includes the following key activity: Applying planned activities
    Quality Assurance
  24. Which quality management process includes the following key activity: Ensuring continuous improvement
    Quality Assurance
  25. Which quality management process includes the following key activity: Monitoring results
    Quality Control
  26. Which quality management process includes the following key activity: Identifying ways to eliminate unwanted results
    Quality Control
  27. What are the key outputs of Quality Planning?
    • Quality management plan
    • Quality improvement plan
    • Quality metrics
    • Quality checklist
  28. What are the key outputs of Quality Assurance?
    • Requested changes
    • Recommended corrective action
  29. What are the key outputs of Quality Control?
    • QC measurements
    • Validated defect repair
    • Recommended corrective and preventive actions
    • Requested changes
    • Recommended defect repair
    • Validated deliverables
  30. A ________________ is a graph that depicts upper and lower control limits, upper and lower specification limits, and actual performance data collected from project activities
    Control chart
  31. Which quality planning tool is described: Generally, an open forum that includes knowledgeable prople in appropriate disciplines and encourages free expression of ideas.
    Brainstorming
  32. Which quality planning tool is described: Diagrams to help identify logical grouping based upon similar attributes
    Affinity diagrams
  33. Which quality planning tool is described: Visual depictations of forces that favor and oppose change
    Force field analysis
  34. Which quality planning tool is described: Small brainstorming groups where output is reviewed by a larger group
    Nominal group techniques
  35. Which quality planning tool is described: Mutiple groups of information presented to show relationships between factors, causes and objectives. Each intersection of a row and column describes a relationship.
    Matrix diagrams
  36. Which quality planning tool is described: Provides a method of ranking sets of problems by importance
    Prioritization Matrices
  37. Who is responisble for managing the overall responsiblity of quality in the organization?
    Senior management
  38. Who is responisble for managing the overall responsiblity of quality of the project?
    Project manager
  39. Which PM skills that are similar to those of a line manager, does the PM use to lead the team?
    • Determine the HR needs of the project
    • Negotiate with line managers for internal resources
    • Acquire external resources through the procurement process
    • Determine training needs
    • Identify/plan team-building activities
    • Determine the performance review approach for motivational purposes
    • Determine the reward and recognition approach for motivational purposes
    • Document the team structure and each team's responsibilities
    • Create a project organization chart
    • Develop a staffing management plan
  40. Who is part of the project management team?
    Project manager, project sponsor, any one else responsible for planning, controlling and closing the project.
  41. What are the key inputs of Develop the Human Resources Plan?
    • Activity resource requirements
    • Enterprise environmental factors
    • Organizational process assets
  42. What tools and techniques are used during Develop the Human Resources Plan?
    • Organization charts and position descriptions
    • Networking
    • Organizational theory
  43. What are the key outputs of the Develop Human Resources Plan?
    Human Resources Plan
  44. Which human resources planning tool is described: Graphically displays work packages according to departments
    Organizational breakdown structure (OBS)
  45. Which human resources planning tool is described: Identified the work assigned to each department
    Organizational breakdown structure (OBS)
  46. Which human resources planning tool is described: Graphically displays resources by type
    Resource breakdown structure
  47. Which human resources planning tool is described: Effective in tracking costs and groups resources even if they are working on different deliverables
    Resource breakdown structure
  48. Which human resources planning tool is described: A change displaying resources and for which assignments they are responsible
    Ressponsibility Assignement Matrix (RAM)
  49. Which human resources planning tool is described: Allows easy identification of all responsiblities for a given resource
    Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
  50. Which human resources planning tool is described: A specific type of responsibility matrix that shows resources that are responsible, accountable, consulted, and informed in project activities
    RACI matrix
  51. Which human resources planning tool is described: Provides more detail than a RAM
    RACI matrix
  52. Which human resources planning tool is described: Text based description of responsibilities
    Position description
  53. Which human resources planning tool is described: Provides a high level of detail for a given position
    Position description
  54. Which human resources planning tool can contain resources other than human resources?
    Resource breakdown structure
  55. What is used to document the type of resources needed, the timing of the resources, how the resources will be acquired, start and end dates, training requirements and other information?
    Staff Management Plan
  56. What are the key inputs to Plan Communications?
    • Stakeholder register
    • Stakeholder management strategy
    • Enterprise environmental factors
    • Organizational process assets
  57. What are the tools and techniques used during the Plan Communications activity?
    • Communication requirements analysis
    • Communications technology
    • Communications models
    • Communications methods
  58. Whare are the outputs of the Plan Communications activity?
    • Communications management plan
    • Project document updates
  59. What are the biggest challenges to communication on the project?
    • Lack of clear direction on when and how to communicate
    • People are reluctant to initiate unsolicited communication
  60. What is the goal of the communications plan?
    The process of developing a communications plan addresses the information and communications needs of the stakeholders by determining the what information each stakeholder needs and defining an approach to ensure the needs are met.
  61. What tool is used to organize risks in a hierarchical structure?
    Risk Breakdown Structure
  62. What technique uses simulations and probability to determine quanitative risk?
    Monte Carlo analysis
  63. What two qualities of a risk are required for assessment?
    Probability and consequences\impact
  64. When is quantitative risk analysis generally performed?
    High probability, high impact
  65. What technique uses probabilities and costs for structure decision-making?
    Decision tree analysis
  66. What tool is useful to capture and track risks, their impacts and probability, proposed responses, and the current status?
    Risk register
  67. The ___________________ is a definition of how risk will be managed, including approach, tools, and techniques for the project.
    Risk methodology
  68. The ___________________ includes the risk methodology, roles/responsibilities, budget, execution timing, and definitions for risk categories, probablilities, and impacts.
    Risk management plan
  69. The ___________________is where the project manager captures responses to specific risks that have been identified during the risk identification process.
    Risk response plan
  70. What are the key inputs to the Plan Risk Management activity?
    • Project scope statement
    • Cost management plan
    • Schedule management plan
    • Communications management plan
    • Enterprise environmental factors
    • Organizational process assets
  71. What are the tools and techniques used during the Plan Risk activity?
    Planning meetings and analysis
  72. What are the output of the Plan Risk activity?
    Risk management plan
  73. What categories of risks should be defined in risk management planning?
    • Technical - associated with new tech
    • External - Risk associated with forces or entities outside the project organization
    • Organizational - Risk associated with either the organization running the project of the organization where the project will be implemented
    • Project management - Risk associated with the project management process
  74. ___________ is the likelihood that the risk will occur.
    Probability
  75. _______ is the effect of the risk if it does occur
    Impact
  76. What are the steps in the risk management process?
    • Identification
    • Analysis
    • Response planning
    • Monitoring/controlling
  77. What type of risk uses techniques to further advance the probabilities and impacts of project risks?
    Quantitative analysis
  78. A modeling technique, such as Monte Carlo simulation, may be used as part which type of risk analysis?
    Quantitative risk analysis
  79. Who is responsible of identifying project risks?
    Project manager, team members, subject matter experts, customers and stakeholders
  80. Which process determines the risks that might impact the project and characterizes those risks?
    Identify risks
  81. What are the inputs to the Idenfity Risks process?
    • Risk management plan
    • Activity cost estimates
    • Activity duration estimates
    • Scope baseline
    • Statkeholder register
    • Cost management plan
    • Schedule management plan
    • Quality management plan
    • Project documents
    • Enterprise environmental factors
    • Organizational process assets
  82. What are the tools and techniques used in the Identify Risks process?
    • Documentation reviews
    • Information gathering techniques
    • Checklist analysis
    • Assumptions analysis
    • Diagramming techniques
    • SWOT analysis
    • Expert judgement
  83. What are the outputs of the Identify Risks process?
    Risk register
  84. What information does the risk register contain?
    • Risk description
    • Date identified
    • Category
    • Potential response
    • Current status
  85. When should the Identify Risks process be conducted?
    Throughout the project, including major milestones, and when a risk occurs.
  86. Which type of risk is most concerned with ranking risks?
    Qualitative
  87. Which type of risk analysis quickly prioritizes risks in order to conduct reponse planning and quantitative risk analysis, if needed?
    Qualitative risk analysis
  88. What are the inputs to the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process?
    • Risk register
    • Risk management plan
    • Project scope statement
    • Organizational process assets
  89. What are the tools and techniques used in the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process?
    • Risk probablility and impact assessment
    • Probability and impact matrix
    • Risk data quality management
    • Risk categorization
    • Risk urgency assessment
    • Expert judgement
  90. What are the outputs of the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process?
    Risk register updates
  91. Which type of risk assigns a numerical value to risks and looks at the risks highest on the list of prioritized risks during qualitative analysis?
    Quantitative analysis
  92. What are the inputs to the Perform Quanitative Risk Analysis process?
    • Risk register
    • Risk management plan
    • Cost management plan
    • Schedule management plan
    • Organizational process assets
  93. What are the tools and techniques used during the Perform Quanitative Risk Analysis process?
    • Data gathering and representation techniques
    • Quanitative risk analysis and modeling techniques
    • Expert judgement
  94. What are the output of the Perform Quanitative Risk Analysis process?
    Risk register updates
  95. Decision tree analysis is used as part of what type of analysis?
    Quantitative risks analysis
  96. Which two values are used in decision tree analysis?
    Probability and cost
  97. What results when probability is multiplied by cost?
    Expended monetary value
  98. Positive risks are considered ____________.
    Opportunities
  99. Which process focuses on developing options to deal with risks?
    Plan Risk Responses
  100. What are the inputs to the Plan Risk Responses process?
    • Risk register
    • Risk management plan
  101. What are the tools and techniques used during the Plan Risk Responses process?
    • Strategies for negative risks or threats
    • Strategies for positive risks or opportunities
    • Contingent reponse strategies plan
    • Expert judgement
  102. What are the outputs of the Plan Risk Responses process?
    • Risk register updates
    • Risk-related contract decisions
    • Project management updates
    • Project document updates
  103. What are the four responses to negative risk?
    • Mitigate
    • Avoid
    • Transfer
    • Accept
  104. What are the possible responses to positive risks?
    • Exploit
    • Share
    • Enhance
    • Accept
  105. Which risk response involves eliminating the threat by changing the project management plan?
    Avoid
  106. Which risk response involves taking no steps as a result of the risk?
    Accept
  107. Which risk response involves using a third party to help capture an opportunity?
    Share
  108. Which risk response involves shifting the risk to a third party?
    Transfer
  109. Which risk response involves taking steps to make the opportunity happen?
    Exploit
  110. Which risk response involves reducing either the probability or the impact of the risk?
    Mitigate
  111. What is a contigency reserve?
    Funds set aside to use in the event of a realized overrun
  112. Which activity focuses on identification and analysis of new risks, as well as the tracking of previously identified risk triggers?
    Rick monitoring and controlling
  113. When should risks be re-evaluated?
    • A risk trigger is identified
    • A chnage request is approved
    • Key project milestones are reached
    • Project phase ends
    • Deviations are detected in variance and trend analysis
    • Corrective or preventive actions are implemented
  114. Which type of management involves the relationship between buyer and seller when products, services, or other results are being purchased?
    Procurement management
  115. What document defines the work in order to allow buyers the ability to evaluate and bid the work?
    The statement of work (SOW)
  116. What are the three primary types of contracts?
    • Fixed price
    • Time and material
    • Cost reimbursement
  117. What are the inputs to the Plan Procurement activity?
    • Scope baseline
    • Requirements documentation
    • Teaming agreements
    • Risk register
    • Risk-related contract decisions
    • Activity resource requirements
    • Project schedule
    • Activity cost estimates
    • Cost performance baseline
    • Enterprise environmental factors
    • Organizational process assets
  118. What are the tools and techniques used during the Plan Procurement activity?
    • Make-or-buy analysis
    • Expert judgement
    • Contract types
  119. What are the outputs of the Plan Procurement activity?
    • Procurement management plan
    • Procurement statements of work
    • Make-or-buy decisions
    • Procurement documents
    • Source selection criteria
    • Change requests
  120. What are the pros and cons of the firm fixed price contract type?
    Benefits the buyer. Seller is at risk if item isn't clearly defined. Seller must manage changes closely.
  121. What are the pros and cons of the fixed price incentive contract type?
    More administrative effort for both buyer and seller
  122. What are the pros and cons of the fixed price with economic price adjustment contract type?
    Used for very long term performance when costs can increase or decrease over time. The EPA clause must relate to a well-known financial index
  123. What are the pros and cons of the purchase order contract type?
    Optimal for commodities such as computers
  124. What are the pros and cons of the cost reimbursement (cost + additional fee) contract type?
    Benefits the seller because his costs are covered. Risk to buyer if costs are higher than anticipated. Budget could be impacted.
  125. What are the pros and cons of the time and materials contract type?
    Seller benefits if amount of work can be extended which impacts the buyer's budget.
  126. What are the three types of cost-reimbursement contracts?
    • Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF)
    • Cost plus incentive (CPIF)
    • and Cost plus award fee (CPAF)
  127. Who has responsibility for tailoring the contract for goods or services to the needs of the project?
    The Project Management team
  128. What are some diagramming techniques that can be used to identify risk?
    • Cause-and-effect diagrams. These are also known as Ishikawa or fishbone diagrams, and are useful for identifying causes of risks.
    • System or process flow chartsshow how various elements of system interrelate, and the mechanism of causation. Seeing the flow sometimes triggers someone to identify a risk that may have slipped through the cracks.
    • Influence diagrams. These are graphical representations of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and outcomes.
  129. What is the diagramming technique that depicts the project's sensitivity to costs or other factors?
    Tornado diagram
  130. What is the diagramming technique that analyzes a project to determine how susceptible it is to being negatively impacted by a risk?
    Sensitivity analysis
  131. What type of plan describes the various specific actions that will be taken if the risk occurs?
    Contingency plan
  132. What type of plan is implemented if the contingency plan fails?
    Fallback plan
  133. What are workarounds in project management?
    Workaround is a task that was not planned, but has to be done if a risk event has occurred.
  134. What is a risk audit?
    Risks audit is the process of revising risk management activities. Its main objective is to ensure that the project manager is effectively performing risk management.
  135. What type of risk is that part of the risk left after mitigating against a primary risk?
    Residual risk
  136. What type of risk is a brand new risk introduced because you have mitigated against the primary risk?
    secondary risk is a brand new risk introduced because you have mitigated against the primary risk.
  137. What is the cost, or time reserve that is used to manage unidentified risks or “unknown-unknowns”
    Management Reserve
  138. Which of the reserves require management approval prior to using?
    Management reserve

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