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What is one of the most important host factor that will cause host to be more susceptible to disease?
What is the resistance of the group and is based on collective immunity of the group?
Does resistance to an agent require that the entire group be immune?
no, just a substantial proportion of the group
What is the balance between the number of immune animals in herd and rate of addition of susceptible animals?
What are some determining factors for duration of immunity of herd?
- intro of susceptible animals to herd and stress factors
- immune animals leave heard
- infectivity of agent (mutation, shedding, transmission)
- density/movement and travel
What are some dangers of mass vaccination?
- vx can be source of other agents with serious effects
- used w/o full understanding of epidemiology
- attenuated can revert to virulence
What is term for what happens to animals as they move through production cycle, including management practices?
What are 3 components that classify/define a case?
- clinical signs
- immunological response
- detection of agent/analytical phase
What are components of descriptive part of epidemiological work up?
- describe disease parameters
- herd history
- case definition
- generate epidemic curve
What is part of analytical phase? What comes after this phase?
- generate hypothesis (calculate attack rates)
- after analytical is intervention/control
What are possible disadvantages of FMD vaccination program?
- create carrier state where Ab cannot be distinguished from natural infection
- vx doesn't cover all serotypes
Is how we prepare to respond to bio disasters the same regardless of cause (accidental, natural, etc.)?
what are 3 major disaster types of biological origin?
- naturally occurring diseases
- accidental disaster
- intentional attacks (bio-/agro-terrorism)
what are some consequences of accidental and/or bioterrorism disasters?
- economic devastation
- physiological impact
- improved preparedness
What qualifies agents as highest priority (category A) according to CDC? (ex. Ebola)
- easily disseminated or transmitted
- high mortality rates/ major public health impact
- cause public panic
- require special action for public health preparedness
What qualifies an agent as third highest priority (cat. B) according to CDC? (ex. Nipah/Hanta virus)
- emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in future bc available
- ease of production and dissemination
- potential for high morbidity/mortality w/major impact
What is veterinarian's role in natural/intentional disasters?
- quick diagnosis and depopulation of affected animals
- ongoing surveillance
- encourage biosecurity and report to authorities as needed
Which 2 agencies have charge of "protecting american agriculture"?
- US dept of agriculture (USDA)
- Animal and plant health inspection service (APHIS)