Epi Final, II
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What is synonymous with precision?
What are 4 considerations when deciding to instigate a screening program?
- -important public health problem and screening can ensure early detection/reduce morbidity/mortality
- -screening can lead to high level of case detection with low false positives
- -follow-up diagnostics and effective treatment exists
- -economically justifiable and test without risk to population
What is course of disease without intervention from time of exposure to resolution?
natural history of disease
what is the point where there are no symptoms of disease but subcellular change in DNA exists?
biological onset of disease
What is the time from biological onset to development of clinical signs? Is it better for this period to be long or short for screening purposes?
- preclinical phase
- long pre-clinical phase best for accurate screening
What is the point during preclinical phase before symptoms develop but disease is detectable with screening test?
detectable preclinical phase
What is the interval by which diagnosis can be made earlier than by screening compared to time diagnosis is usually made? Ie: early detection
What is point(s) in natural history when treatment before this point is effective; therefore cure is possible before this point but not after?
critical point (ex. breast cancer treatable if removed before metastisis)
What is period after which symptoms develop?
clinical phase (from symptoms to therapy/outcome)
What are 5 components of infectious process?
- portals of entry/exit
- mode of transmission
- susceptible host
What is an organism living and/or replicating within a host?
What is the term for where the agent multiplies and is MAINTAINED; without this, the agent cannot survive?
What is a mechanical vector v. biological vector?
- mechanical: carries pathogen but agent does not replicate or develop here
- biological: replication/development occurs in vector
What is the term for an animal capable of becoming infected with agent?
What are 4 types of susceptible hosts? Which is the main concern w/zoonosis?
- reservoir/essential (zoonosis concern)
- dead end
What is defined as habitat/animal in which infectious agent usually resides and/or multiplies; and agent depends on this for survival?
What type of host allows agent to multiply at high levels sufficient to spread to others and titers are high enough to transmit to vector/new host?
Not all amplifier hosts are ___ hosts but all ____ hosts are amplifiers.
Which host is not required for maintenance but can become infected with the agent?
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