9.1-9.12

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DesLee26
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136179
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9.1-9.12
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2012-02-19 13:31:18
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Anatomy Physiology
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  1. Introduction
    A) The __ is composed of __ and __.
    1) What do neurons do?
    2) __ are made up of bundles of nerve fibers.
    3) __ carry out a variety of functions to __ and __ components of the nervous system
    • nervous system, neurons, neuroglia
    • 1) transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons
    • 2) Nerves
    • 3) Neuroglia, aid, protect
  2. B. Organs of the nervous system can be divided into the __, and the __.
    - What are each made up of?
    C. The nervous system provides __, __ and __ functions to the body.
    • CNS (made of the brain and spinal cord)
    • PNS (made up of peripheral nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body)
    • C. sensory, integrative, motor
  3. General Functions of the NS
    A. __ at the ends of __ gather information adn convert it into __.
    B. When __ are integrated in the brain as __, this is the __ of the NS.
    C. __ or __ decisions follow, leading to __ via __.
    • A. Sensory receptors, peripheral nerves, nerve impulses
    • B. sensory impulses, perceptions, integrative funciton
    • C. Conscious, subconscious, motor functions, effectors (muscles, glands)
  4. Neuron Structure
    A. What does a neuron have.
    B. What do nerve fibers have?
    1) Branching __ carry impulses from other neurons (or from receptors) toward the __.
    2) The __ transmits thee impulse away from the __ of the __ and may give off side branches.
    3) Larger __ are enclosed by __ provided by __ and are __.
    a) The outer layer of __ is surrounded by a __ made up of the __ and __ of the __.
    b) Narrow gaps in the __ between __ are called __.
    4) The smallest axons lack a __ and are __.
    5) __ in the CNS is due to __ in this area.
    6) __ in the CNS appears __.
    • A. cell body with mitochondria, a Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, Nissl bodies containing rough endoplasmic reticulum, and neurofibrils
    • B. include a solitary axon and numerous dendrites
    • 1) dendrites, cell body
    • 2) Axon, axon hillock, cell body
    • 3) axons, sheaths of myelin, Schwann cells, myelinated fibers
    • a) myelin, neurilemma (neurilemmal sheath), cytoplasm, nuclei, Schwann cell
    • b) myelin sheath, Schwann cells, nodes of Ranvier
    • 4) myelin sheath, unmyelinated fibers
    • 5) white matter, myelin sheaths
    • 6) unmyelinated nerve tissue, gray
  5. Types of Neurons and Neuroglial Cells
    A. Neurons can be grouped in two ways: __ and __.
    • 1) on the basis of structural differences (bipolar, unipolar, and multipolar neurons)
    • 2) and by functional differences (sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons)
  6. Nerve Impulse
    A. A __ is conducted as __ is reached at the __ and spreads by a local current flowing down the fiber, and adjacent areas of the membrane reach __.

    B. __
    1) __ conduct impulses over their entire membrane
    2) __ conduct impulses from __ to __, a phenomenon called __.
    3) __ is many times faster than __ on __.

    C. __
    1) If a nerve fiber responds at all to a stimulus, it responds __ by conducting an __ (__).
    • A. nerve impulse/ action potential/ trigger zone/ action potential
    • B. Impulse Conduction
    • 1) Unmyelinated fibers
    • 2) Myelinated fibers/ node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier/ saltatory conduction
    • 3) Saltatory conduction/ conduction/ unmyelinated neurons
    • C. All-or-None Response
    • 1) completely/ impulse/ (all-or-none response)
  7. The Synapse
    A. The junction between two communicating neurons is called a __; there exists a __ between them across which the impulse must be conveyed.

    B. __
    1) The process by which the impulse in the __ is transmitted across the __ to the __ is caled __.
    2) When an impulse reaches the __ of an axon, __ release __ into the __.
    3) The __ reacts with specific receptors on the __.

    C. __
    1) __ that increase __ to __ may trigger impulses and are thus __.
    2) Other __ may decrease __ to __, reducing the chance that it will reach __, and are thus __.
    • A) synapse; synaptic cleft
    • B) Synaptic Transmission
    • 1) presynaptic neuron; synaptic cleft; postsynaptic neuron; synaptic transmission
    • 2) synaptic knobs; synaptic vesicles; neurotransmitters; synaptic cleft
    • 3) neurotransmitter; postsynaptic membrane
    • C) Excitatory and Inhibitory Actions
    • 1) neurotransmitters; postsynaptic membrane permeability; sodium ions; excitatory
    • 2) neurotransmitters; membrane permeability; sodium ions; threshold; inhibitory
  8. Types of Nerves
    A) A __ is a bundle of nerve fibers held together by layers of connective tissue.
    B) __ cna be__, __, or __, carrying both __ and __ fibers.
    • A) nerve
    • B) nerves, sensory, motor, mixed, sensory, motor
  9. Nerve Pathways
    A. The routes nerve impulses travel are called __, the simplest of which is a __.

    B. __
    1) A __ includes a __, __, __, __, and __.

    C. __
    1) __ are automatic, subconscious responses to __ that help maintain __ and carry out automatic responses (__).
    2) The __ is an example of a __.
    3) The __ involves __, __, and __.
    a) At the same time, the __ are inhibited.
    • A. pathways, reflex arc
    • B. Reflex Arcs
    • 1) reflex arc; sensory receptor; sensory neuron; interneuron in the spinal cord; motor neuron; effector
    • C. Reflex Behavior
    • 1) reflexes; stimuli; homeostasis (HR, BP, etc.); (vomiting, sneezing, swallowing, etc.)
    • 2) knee-jerk reflex (patellar tendon reflex); monosynaptic reflex (no interneuron)
    • 3) withdrawal reflex, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons
    • a. antagonistic extensor muscles
  10. Meninges
    A) The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by membranes called __ that lie between the bone and the soft tissues.
    B. The outermost __ is made up of tough, white dense connective tissue, contains many __, and is called the __.
    1) It forms the __ of the skul bones.
    2) The sheath around the spinal cord is separated from the vertebrae by an __.
    C. The middle __, the __, is thin and lacks blood vessels.
    1) Between the __ and __ is a __ containing __.
    D. The innermost __ is thin and contains many blood vessels and nerves.
    1) It is attached to the surface of the brain and spinal cord and follows their contours.
    • A) meninges
    • B) meninx, blood vessels, dura mater
    • 1) inner periosteum
    • 2) epidural space
    • C) meninx, arachnoid mater
    • 1) arachnoid and pia maters, subarachnoid space, cerebrospinal fluid
    • D) pia mater
  11. Spinal Cord
    A. The spinal cord begins at the __ and extends as a __ to the level of the __ between the first and second __.

    B. Structure of the Spinal Cord
    1) The spinal cord consists of __, each of which gives rise to a pair of __.
    2) A __ gives rise to the nerves leading to the __, and a __ gives rise to those innervating the __.
    3) Two deep __ (__ and __) divide the cord into __ and __.
    4) __, made up of bundles of __ (__), surrounds a butterfly-shaped core of __ housing __.
    5) A __ contains __.

    C. Functions of the Spinal Cord
    1) The spinal cord has two major functions: __ + __
    2) __ carrying sensory information to the brain are called __; __ carry motor information from the brain.
    3) Many __ also pass through the spinal cord.
    • A. base of the brain; slender cord; intervertebral disk; lumbar vertebrae
    • B1) 31 segments; spinal nerves
    • B2) cervical enlargement; upper limbs; lumbar enlargement; lower limbs
    • B3) longitudinal grooves (anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus); right and left halves
    • B4) White matter; myelinated nerve fibers (nerve tracts); gray matter; interneurons
    • B5) central canal; cerebrospinal fluid

    • C1) to transmit impulses to and from the brain; to house spinal reflexes
    • C2) tracts; ascending tracts; descending tracts
    • C3) spinal reflexes

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