949 Block 2 Med Term

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949 Block 2 Med Term
2012-02-18 17:45:08
Med Term

PPS 949 Medical Terminology for Block 2
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  1. Womb; a pear-shaped organ in the pelvic cavity in which the embryo & fetus develops
  2. Upper portion of the uterus above the entry to the uterince tubes
  3. Lining of the uterus, which is shed approximately every 28-30d in a nonpregnant female during menstruation
  4. Muscular wall of the uterus
  5. Tubes extending from each side of the uterus towards the ovary that provide a passage for ova to the uterus
    Uterine tubes/ Fallopian tubes
  6. Uterine tubes & ovaries (uterine appendages)
  7. Right tube & ovary
    Right uterine appendage
  8. Left tube & ovary
    Left uterine appendage
  9. One of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova & female sex hormones
  10. Neck of the uterus
  11. Opening of the cervix to the uterus
    Cervical os
  12. Tubular passageway from the cervix to the outside of the body
  13. External genitalia of the female
  14. Folds of tissue on either side of the vaginal opening; known as teh labia majora & labia minora
  15. Female erectile tissue in the anterior portion of the vulva
  16. Fold of mucous membrane that encircles the entrance to the vagina
  17. Entrance to the vagina
  18. Two glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete a lubricant during intercourse
    Bartholin glands
  19. Region between the vulva & anus
  20. Two glands in the female breasts that are capable of producing milk
    Mammary glands
  21. Nipple
    Mammary papilla
  22. Dark-pigmented area around the nipple
  23. Developing organism from fertilization to the end of the 8th week
  24. Developing organism from 9th week to birth
  25. Vascular organ that develops in the uterine wall during pregnancy to provide nourishment for the fetus
  26. Innermost of the membranes surrounding the embryo in the uterus, filled with amniotic fluid
    Amnion/ Amniotic sas
  27. Fluid within the amniotic sac that surrounds & protects the fetus
    Amniotic fluid
  28. Intestinal discharges of the fetus that form the first stools in the newborn
  29. Absense of menstruation
  30. Painful menstruation
  31. Scanty mentrual period
  32. Absense of ovulation
  33. Painful intercouse (coitus)
  34. Abnormal white or yellow vaginal discharge
  35. Excessive bleeding at the time of menstruation (menses)
  36. Bleeding from the uterus at any time other than normal menstruation
  37. Irregular ovulation
  38. Inflammation of the cervix
  39. Birth defects that cause abnormal development of an organ or a structure (ex: double uterus or absent vagina)
    Congenital anomalies/ Congenital irregularities
  40. Congenital tumor composed of displaced embryonic tissue (teeth, bone, cartilage, hair); typically found in an ovary & usually benign
    Dermoid cyst
  41. Displacement of the uterus from its normal position
    Displacement of the uterus
  42. Abnormal forward bending of the uterus
  43. Abnormal backward bending of the uterus
  44. Backward turn of the whole uterus; also called tipped uterus
  45. Condition characterized by migration of portions of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity
  46. Inflammation of the endometrium
  47. Benign tumor in the uterus composed of smooth muscle & fibrous connective tissue
    Fibroid/ Fibromyoma/ Leiomyoma
  48. Abnormal passage, such as from one hollow organ to another
  49. Abnormal opening between the vagina & rectum
    Rectovaginal fistula
  50. Abnormal opening between the baldder & vagina
    Vesicovaginal fistula
  51. Abnormal development of cervical tissue cells
    Cervical neoplasia
  52. Potentially cancerous abnormality of epithelial tissue of the cervix, graded according to the extent of abnormal cell formation
    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
  53. CIN-1: mild dysplasia
    CIN-2: moderate dysplasia
    CIN-3: severe dysplasia
    Cercvical dysplasia
  54. Malignant cell changes of the cervix that are localized, without any spread to adjacent structures
    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the cervix
  55. Cessation of menstrual periods caused by lack of ovarian hormones
  56. Inflammation of one or both ovaries
  57. Cyst of teh uterine tube (fallopian tube)
    Parovarian cyst
  58. Scarring of the tissue within the pelvic cavity resulting from endometriosis, infection, injury
    Pelvic adhesions
  59. Inflammation of organs in the pelvic cavity; usually includes the fallopian tubes, ovaries, endometrium; most often caused by bacteria
    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  60. Relaxation of supportive ligaments of the pelvic organs
    Pelvic floor relaxation
  61. Pouching of the bladder into the vagina
  62. Pouching of the rectum into the vagina
  63. Pouching sac of peritoneum between the vagina & the rectum
  64. Pouching of teh urethra into the vagina
  65. Descent of the uterus down the vaginal canal
  66. Inflammation of the fallopian tube
  67. Inflammation of the vagina with redness, swelling, irritation; often caused by a specific organism, such as Candida (yeast) or Trichomonas (sexually transmitted parasite)
  68. Thinning of the vagina & loss of moisture because of depletion of estrogen, which causes inflammation of tissue
    Atrophic vaginitis
  69. Infection of the vagina, with little or no inflammation, characterized by a milk-like discharge & an unpleasant odor; also known as nonspecific vaginitis
  70. Most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in North America; often occurs with no symptoms & is treated only after it has spread, such as after causing PID
  71. Contagious inflammation of the genital mucous membranes caused by invasion of the gonococcus Neisseiria gonorrhea; the term refers to the urethral discharge characteristic of the infection, which was first thought to be a leakage of semen; the genus is named for the Polish dermatologist Albert Neisser
  72. Infectious disease caused by a spirochete transmitted via direct, intimate contact & that may involve any organ or tissue over time; usually manifests first on the skin, with the appearance of small, painless, red papules that erode & form bloodless ulcers called chancres
  73. Virus that causes an inflammation of the liver; transmitted through any body fluid, including vaginal secretions, semen & blod
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
  74. Virus that causes ulcer-like lesions of the gential & anorectal skin & mucosa; after the inital infection, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cell root & may recur at times of stress
    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)
  75. Virus that causes AIDS, permitting various opportunistic infections, malignancies & neurologic diseases; contaminated blood or body fluid
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  76. Virus transmitted by direct sexual contact; infection can manifest on the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals
    Human papilloma virus (HPV)
  77. Lesion that appears as a result of HPV; on the skin, the lesions appear as cauliflower-like warts & on the mucous membranes, they have a flat appearance; also known as venereal or genital warts
    Condyloma acuminatum
  78. Malignant tumor of glandular breast tissue
    Adenocarcinoma of the breast
  79. Absence of a breast
  80. Benign condition of the breast consisting of fibrous & cystic changes that render the tissue more dense; patient feels painful lumps that fluctuate with menstrual periods
    Fibrocystic breasts
  81. Development of mammary glands in the male caused by altered hormone levels
  82. Abnormally large breasts
    Hypermastia/ Macromastia
  83. Unusually small breasts
    Hypomastia/ Micromastia
  84. Inflammation of the breast; most commonly occurs in women who are breastfeeding
  85. Presence of more than two breasts
  86. Presence of more than one nipple on a breast
    Polythelia/ Supernumerary nipples
  87. Removal of tissue for microscopic pathologic examination
  88. Needle draw of tissue or fluid from a cavity for cytologic examination
    Aspiration biopsy/ Needle biopsy
  89. Removal of a specimen for biopsy during an endoscopic procedure (ex: colposcopy)
    Endoscopic biopsy
  90. Removal of an entire lesion for microscopic examination
    Excisional biopsy
  91. Removal of a piece of suspicious tissue for microscopic examination (ex: cervical or endometrial biopsy)
    Incisional biopsy
  92. Use of x-ray imaging, a specialized steriotactic frame & a computer to calculate, precisely locate & direct a needle into a breast lesion to remove a core specimen for biopsy
    Stereotactic breast biopsy
  93. Biopsy of the sentinel node (the first lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a tumor) in a breast with early cancer to determine metastases & if no malignancy is found, to avoid extensive removal of axillary nodes, which causes lymphedema (swelling under the arms); includes radionuclide imaging to locate the sentinal node (sentinal refers to guarding a point of entry)
    Sentinal node breast biopsy
  94. Examination of the vagina & cercix using a colposcope, a specialized microscope which often has a camera attachment for photographs; used to document findings & for follow-up treatments
  95. Use of hysteroscope to examine the intrauterine cavity for assessment of abnormalities (ex: polyps, fibroids, anomalies)
  96. Use of nonionizing images to detect gynecologic conditions (ex: anomalies of the pelvis or soft tissues of the breast) or to stage tumors arising from the endometrium or cervix
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  97. Study of cells collected from the cervix to screen for cancer & other abnormalities
    Papanicolaou (pap) smear
  98. X-ray of the fallopian tubes after injection of a contrast medium through the cervix; used to determine tubal patency (openness)
  99. Low-dose x-ray imaging of breast tissue to detect neoplasm's
  100. Ultrasound imaging of the female pelvis
    Pelvic sonography
  101. Ultrasound image of the uterus, tubes & ovaries made with the ultrasonic transducer within the vagina to detect conditions such as ectopic pregnancy or missed abortion
    Endovaginal sonogram/ Transvaginal sonogram
  102. Transvaginal sonographic image made as sterile saline if injected into the uterus; used to assess uterine pathology or to determine tubal patency
    Sonohysterogram/ Hysterosonogram/ Saline infusion sonogram
  103. Ultrasound image of the lower abdomen, including the bladder, uterus, tubes & ovaries, to detect conditions such as cysts & tumors
    Transabdominal sonogram
  104. Breaking down or severing of pelvic adhesions
    Adhesiolysis/ Adhesiotomy
  105. Removal of a cone-shaped portion of the cervix
    Cervical conization
  106. Suture to repair the vagina
  107. Repair of a cystocele
    Colporrhaphy anterior repair
  108. Repair of a rectocele
    Colporrhaphy posterior repair
  109. Anterior & posterior repair of cystocele & rectocele
    Colporrhaphy A&P repair
  110. Method of destroying tissue by freezing; used for treating dysplasia & early cancers
  111. Dilation of the cervix & scraping of the endometrium to control bleeding, to obtain tissue for biopsy, or to remove polyps or products of conception
    Dilation & Curettage (D&C)
  112. Removal of the uterus
  113. Removal of th uterus through an incision in the abdomen
    Abdomianl hysterectomy
  114. Removal of the uterus through the vagina
    Vaginal Hysterectomy
  115. Removal of the uterus & cervix
    Total hysterectomy
  116. Inspection of the abdominal or pelvic cavity with a laproscope, which is an endoscope used to examine the abdominal & pelvic regions
  117. Surgical procedures within the abdominal or pelvic region using a laparoscope
    Laparoscopic surgery
  118. Use of a laser to destroy lesions or to dissect or cut tissue; used frequently in gynecology
    Laser surgery
  119. Use of electrosurgical or radio waves transformed through a loop-configured electrosurgical device to treat precancerous cervical lesions by simultaneous excisional biopsy & treatment of affected tissue (ex: cervical dysplasia or HPV lesions); note that the transformation zone is the area of the cervix (between the endocervix &
    ectocervix), where the neoplasia—new abnormal cell formation—is most likely the arise
    Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)/ Large-loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ)
  120. Excision of fibroid tumors
  121. Excision of an ovary
  122. Excision of an ovarian cyst
    Ovarian cystectomy
  123. Excision of a uterine tube
  124. Excision of both uterine tubes & ovaries
    Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
  125. Incision into fallopian tube; often performed to remove an ectopic pregnancy
  126. Creation of an opening in the fallopian tube to open a blockage
  127. Sterilization of a woman by cutting & tying (ligating) the uterine tubes
    Tubal ligation
  128. Excision of a breast tumor without removing any other tissue or lymph nodes; usually followed by radiation or chemotherapy if the tumor is cancerous
  129. Removal of a breast
  130. Removal of an entire breast but with the underlying muscle & axillary lymph nodes left intact
    Simple mastectomy
  131. Removal of an entire breast along with the underlying chest muscles & axillary lymph nodes
    Radical mastectomy
  132. Removal of an entire breast & lymph nodes of the axilla
    Modified radical mastectomy
  133. Surgical reconstruction of a breast
  134. Reconstruction to enlarge the breast, often by insertion of an implant
    Augmentation mammoplasty
  135. Reconstruction to remove excessive breast tissue
    Reduction mammoplasty
  136. Elevation of pendulous breast tissue
  137. Treatment of malignancies,
    infections & other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected
    cells or impair their ability to reproduce
  138. Treatment of neoplastic disease using radiation to deter the
    proliferation of malignant cells
    Radiation therapy
  139. Use of a hormone (ex:
    estrogen or progesterone) to replace a deficiency or to regulate production
    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
  140. Hormones used to prevent conception by suppressing ovulation
    Hormonal contraceptives
  141. Birth control pill
    Oral contraceptive pill (OCP)
  142. Injection of a contraceptive hormone (ex: Depo-Provera) into the body
    Contraception injection
  143. Insertion of a contraceptive capsule under the skin to provide a continual infusion over an extended period
    Contraceptive implant
  144. Products that provide a physical barrier to prevent conception (e: condoms or diaphragms)
    Barrier contraceptives
  145. Contraceptive device inserted into the uterus that prevents implantation of a fertilized egg
    Intrauterine device (IUD)
  146. Creams, jellies, lotions, foams containing agents that kill sperm (cid/o = to kill)
  147. A pregnant woman; gravida followed by a number indicates the number of pregnancies
  148. Having never been pregnant
  149. First pregnancy
  150. To bear; a woman who has produced one or more viable (live outside the uterus) offspring; para followed
    by a number indicates the number of times a pregnancy has resulted in a single or multiple birth
  151. A woman who has not borne a child (nulli=none; para=to bear)
  152. First delivery (primi=first; para=to bear)
  153. Woman who has given birth to two or more children (multi=many; para=to bear)
  154. Progressive obliteration of the endocervical canal during delivery
    Cervical effacement
  155. Expected date for delivery of the baby; normally 280 days or 40 weeks from last menstrual period (LMP)
    • Estimated date of confinement
    • Estimated date of delivery
  156. Presence of meconium in amniotic fluid
    Meconium staining
  157. Rupture of the amniotic sac, usually at onset of labor
    Ruptured membranes
  158. Large-bodied baby commonly
    seen in diabetic pregnancies (macro=large; soma=body)
  159. Excessive amniotic fluid
  160. Gravida, para, abortus (abortions)
  161. Term Infants, premature infants, abortions, living children
  162. Expulsion of the products of conception before the fetus is viable (able to live outside the uterus)
    Abortion (AB)
  163. Miscarriage; naturally occurring expulsion of the products of conception
    Spontaneous abortion (SAB)
  164. Spontaneous abortion occurring in three or more consecutive pregnancies
    Habitual abortion
  165. Incomplete expulsion of the products of conception
    Incomplete abortion
  166. Death of a fetus or embryo within the uterus that is not naturally expelled after death
    Missed abortion
  167. Bleeding with the threat of miscarriage
    Threatened abortion
  168. Condition preventing normal delivery through the birth canal; either the baby’s head is too large or the
    birth canal is too small
    Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)
  169. True toxemia of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, albuminuria, edema of the legs & feet,
    severe headaches, dizziness, convulsions & coma
  170. Toxemia of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, albuminuria, edema or the legs & feet
    & puffiness of the face, without convulsion or coma
    • Preeclampsia
    • Pregnancy-Induced HTN (PIH)
  171. Implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity, often in the tube or ovary, or rarely, in the abdominal cavity
    Ectopic pregnancy
  172. Disorder that results form the incompatibility of a fetus with an Rh-positive blood factor & a mother
    with an Rh-negative blood factor, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; this condition necessitates a blood transfusion to save the fetus
    Erythroblastosis fetalis
  173. Presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of RBCs that may cause a reaction between the blood of
    the mother & the fetus, resulting in fetal anemia, which causes erythroblastosis fetalis
    Rh factor
  174. Presence of antigens
    Rh positive
  175. Absence of antigens
    Rh negative
  176. Severe nausea & vomiting in pregnancy that can cause severe dehydration in the mother &
    fetus (emesis=vomit)
    Hyperemesis gravidarum
  177. Fetal aspiration of amniotic fluid containing meconium
    Meconium aspiration
  178. Displaced attachment of the placenta in the lower region of the uterine cavity
    Placenta previa
  179. Premature detachment of a normally situated placenta
    Abruptio placentae
  180. Sampling of a placental tissue for microscopic & chemical examination to detect fetal abnormalities
    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
  181. Aspiration of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis of possible fetal abnormalities
  182. Aspiration of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis of possible fetal abnormalities
    Fetal monitoring
  183. Obstetric measurement of the pelvis to evaluate proper conditions for vaginal delivery
  184. Test performed on urine or blood to detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (secreted by the placenta), which indicates pregnancy
    Pregnancy Test
  185. Ultrasound imaging of the female pelvis
    Pelvic sonography
  186. Ultrasound image of the uterus, tubes, ovaries made after introduction of an ultrasonic transducer within the vagina; useful for detecting pathology (ex: ectopic pregnancy or
    missed abortion)
    Endovaginal sonogram/ Transvaginal sonogram
  187. Ultrasound image of the pregnant uterus to determine fetal development
    Obstetric sonogram
  188. Surgical delivery of a baby via an incision through the abdomen & into the uterus
    Cesarean section (C-section)
  189. Dilation of the cervix & removal of the products of conception; most commonly performed in the second trimester of pregnancy, after a missed abortion
    Dilation & evacuation (D&E)
  190. Incision of the perineum to facilitate delivery of a baby
  191. Drug that causes abortion (ex: mifepristone—formerly known as RU-486)
  192. Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that causes myometrial contraction; used to induce labor
  193. Immunizing agent given to an Rh-negative mother within 72h after delivering an Rh-positive baby to suppress the Rh immune response
    Rh immune globulin
  194. Drug used to stop labor contractions
    Tocolytic agent
  195. Introduction of a solution into the amniotic sac; an isotonic solution is most commonly used to relieve fetal distress
  196. Abortion induced by mechanical means or by drugs for medical reasons
    Therapeutic abortion (TAB)
  197. Manual method for reversing the position of the fetus, usually doe to facilitate delivery
  198. Abdominal manipulation
    External version
  199. Intravaginal manipulation
    Internal version