145 exam 1

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145 exam 1
2012-02-24 00:59:16

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  1. schema
    mental frameworks centering on a specific theme that helps us to organize social information
  2. heuristics
    • simple rules for making complex decisions or drawing inferences in a rapid manner and seemingly effortless manner
    • - these reduce cognitive effort
  3. affect
    our current feelings and moods
  4. attention
    what information we notice
  5. encoding
    processes through which informaiton we notice gets stored in memory
  6. retrieval
    • - the processes through which we recover information from memory to use it in some manner
    • - when we are trying to handle a lot of information at one time, we rely on our schemas because they help us process this info efficiently
  7. priming
    it is a situation that occurs when stimuli or events increase the availability in memory or consciousness of specific types of information held in memory
  8. unpriming
    the fact that effects of the schemas tend to persist until they are somehow expressed in thought or behavior and only then do their effects decrease
  9. perseverance effect
    the tendency for beliefs and schemas to remain unchanged even in the face of contradictory information
  10. information overload
    instances where our ability to process info is exceededbecause of these difficulties we try to make things less cognitively stressful
  11. representative heuristic
    • - a strategy for making judgements based on the extent to which current stimuli or events resemble other stimuli or categories
    • - this is sometimes accurate, but can also lead to errors in our thinking about others
  12. availability heuristic
    a strategy for making judgements on the basis of how easily specific kinds of information can be brought to mind
  13. anchoring and adjustment heuristic
    • - the tendency to use a number of value as a starting point to which we then make adjustments
    • - often used in situations on uncertainty, using what they do know as a starting point
    • - some times this heuristic is used to avoid effortful work
  14. automatic processing
    after extensive experience with a task or type of information, we reach the stage where we can perform the task or process the information in a seemingly effortless, automatic, and non-conscious manner
  15. negativity bias
    we pay more attention to negative characteristics, than positive ones about other people and this strongly influences our social thought
  16. optimistic bias
    our predisposition to expect things to turn out well overall
  17. overconfidence barrier
    the tendency to have more confidence in the accuracy of our own judgments than is reasonable
  18. planning fallacy
    the tendency to make optimistic predictions concerning how long a given task will take for completion
  19. counterfactual thinking
    the tendency to imagine other outcomes in a situation than the ones that actually occurred (“what might have been”)
  20. thought suppression
    our efforts to prevent certain thoughts from entering consciousness
  21. magical thinking
    thinking involving assumptions that don't hold up to rational scrutiny- for example, the belief that things resemble one another share fundamental properties
  22. terror management
    our efforts to come to terms with certainty of our own death and unsettling implications
  23. mood congruence effect
    the fact that we are more likely to store or remember positive info when in a positive mood and negative info when in a negative mood
  24. mood dependent memory
    the fact that what we remember while in a given mood may be determined, in part, by what we learned when previously in that mood
  25. accuracy
    careful and error-free
  26. objectivity
    working to rule out biases, not possible to remove all biases
  27. skepticism
    trusting results confirmed by replication and peer review
  28. open-mindedness
    revising beliefs when evidence suggests that they are wrong, often going against human nature
  29. 4 Core Values
    1) accuracy is a commitment to gathering and evaluating such information about the world (including social behavior and thought) in a careful, precise, and error-free manner as possible

    2) objectivity is a commitment to otaining and evaluating such information in a manner that is as free from bias as humanly possible

    3) Skepticism is a commitment to accepting findings as accurate only to the extent have been verified again

    4) Open-mindedness is a commitment to changing one’s views -- even views that are strongly held if evidence suggests that these views are inaccurate
  30. cultural context
    events, beliefs, and trends in our own culture effect our relations with others and how we think about them
  31. evolutionary psychology
    a new branch of psychology that seeks to investigate the potential role of genetic factors in various aspects of human behavior
  32. 3 basic component of evolution
    1) variation- refers to the fact that organisms belonging to a given species vary in many different ways; indeed, such variation is a basic part of life on our planet

    2) inheritance- refers to the fact that some of these variations can be passes from one generation to the next through complex mechanisms that we are only now beginning to fully understand

    3) selection- refers to the fact that some variations give the individuals who possess them an “edge” in terms of reproductions: they are more likely to survive, find mates, and pass these variations on to succeeding generations

    * must be in this order
  33. social neuroscience
    an area of research in social psychology that seeks knowledge about the neural and biological bases of social processes
  34. multicultural perspective
    a focus on understanding the cultural and ethnic factors that influence social behavior
  35. social norms
    rules indicating how individuals should behave
  36. cognitive dissonance
    humans dislike inconsistency and try to reduce it
  37. attribution
    the process through which we seek to understand the causes of other’s behavior/ why they act as they do
  38. systematic observation
    a method of research in which behavior is systematically observed and recorded --> careful, accurate measurement
  39. naturalistic observation
    observation of behavior in natural settings, no attempt to change behavior
  40. survey method
    - a method of research in which a large number of people answer questions about their attitudes or behavior

    - measure attitudes concerning social issues

    • surveys must meet certain requirements:
    • - representative sample
    • - wording clarity
  41. correlation
    • - the tendency for one event to change as the other
    • changes -->variables
    • - the stronger the correlation --> more accurate predictions
  42. correlational method
    a method of research in which a scientist systematically observes two or more variables to determine whether changes in one are accompanied by changes in the other
  43. experimental method
    - one variable is changed systematically and the effects of these changes on one or more other variables are carefully measured --> conclude causal relationship

    • 2 requirements:
    • - random assignment of variables
    • - all factors, other than independent variables, that might also affect participant behavior must be held constant
  44. hypothesis
    a statement proposing a relation between at least two variables
  45. independent variable
    the variable that is systematically changed in an experiment
  46. dependent variable
    the variable that is measured in an experiment
  47. random assignment of participants to experimental conditions
    A basic requirement for conducting valid experiments. According to this principle, research participants must have an equal chance of being exposed to each level of the independent variable
  48. external validity
    the extent to which findings of an experiment can be generalized to real-life social situations and perhaps to people different from those who participated in the research
  49. mediating variable
    A variable that is affecting the independent variable and influences a dependent variable. Mediating variables help us find why or how specific variables influence social behavior and thought in certain ways.
  50. theories
    • efforts by scientists in any field to answer the question “why?” Theories involve attempts to understand why certain events or processes occur as they do
    • understand and make predictions
    • heuristic: explain patterns of results
    • guide research
    • - can you deescalate aggression? Yes
    • - open to possible changes of theory
  51. deception
    a technique whereby researchers withhold information about the purposes or procedures of a study from people participating in it
  52. informed consent
    a procedure in which research participants are provided with as much information as possible about a research project before deciding whether to participate in it
  53. debriefing
    procedures at the conclusion of a research session in which participants are given full information about the nature of the research and the hypothesis or hypotheses under investigation
  54. covariation
    variables change together
  55. Temporal Precedence
    • - cause comes before the effect
    • - cause = IV
    • - effect = DV
  56. verisimilitude
    • - truth likeness
    • - hypothesis can only be supported, not disproved
    • - we try to get as close to the truth as we can
  57. 5 Factors that influence affect, cognition, and behavior
    • - other people in environment
    • - cognitive processes
    • - ecological variables
    • - culture
    • - biology
  58. positive correlation
    • - both variables increase together
    • - direct relation
  59. negative correlation
    • - as one variable increases, the other decreases (and visa versa)
    • - inverse relation
  60. blocking variable
    a factor that the participant comes into the experiment with (it cannot be assigned by the experimenter) and that the experimenter would like to study
  61. factorial experiment
    two or more IVs (factors)
  62. random assignment
    every member of the sample has an equal chance of being included in any one of the treatment groups
  63. confounded variable
    any factor that covaries with the IV
  64. mediating variable
    a factor that links the IV and the DV
  65. moderator variable
    a factor that affects the direction or strength of a relation between variables
  66. our reactions are based on...
    past situations, memories, and inferences of truth
  67. cognitive processes play a crucial role in..
    social behavior and thought --> mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning
  68. Harris & Fiske Study
    Warmth & Competence
    • looking for emotions linked with dehumanization
    • found that there was activity in areas of social thought when there was low warmth and high competence
    • low warmth/low competence -->dehumanized
    • Certain groups are so reviled that they are depersonalized and not thought about in the same way that other people are thought about
  69. behavior cannot be broken down without considering...
    thoughts, memory, intentions, emotions, attitudes, and beliefs
  70. Implicit(nonconscious) Processes
    our preferences, the way we think and behave can be influenced by reactions and feelings we’re unaware of
  71. Muzafer Sherif --> studied nature and impact of social norms
    contributed to basic insights to our understanding of pressures toward conformity
  72. Cognitive Misers
    we are C.M. because we cannot think every decision through thoroughly because that would be exhausting and often confusing, so we look for short cuts
  73. perseverance effect
    • the tendency for beliefs and schemas to remain unchanged even in the face of contradictory information
    • (effect of schemas)
  74. self-fulfilling prophecy
    • expectations that come true through the actions of the person who makes the predictions
    • (effect of schemas)
  75. representative heuristic
    a strategy for making judgements based on the extent to which current stimuli or events resemble or represent previously held stereotypes
  76. availability heuristic
    • - information that can be readily remembered is viewed as more relevant or important than information that cannot be readily remembered
    • - sometimes we just remember more dramatic things, rather than just what’s important
  77. false consensus effect
    the tendency to assume that other behave or think like we do
  78. anchoring and adjustment
    • using a starting # or value on which to base further estimates or assessments
    • some like to set to starting #
    • we like having somewhere to start
  79. negativity bias
    • a powerful tendency to pay attention to undesirable information or stimuli (evolutionary defense mechanism to avoid pain)
    • other directed, error
  80. optimistic bias
    • the predisposition to expect things to turn out well overall
    • (self-direct)
  81. overconfidence barrier
    • the tendency to have more confidence in the accuracy of our judgments than is reasonable, an example of the optimistic bias
    • (self-directed)
  82. defensive pessimism
    • when individuals expect to receive a negative outcome that will have important consequences for them, they tend to expect the worst (this protects us in a way)
    • (self-directed)
  83. when we look at others negatively....
    • we look at ourselves postively
    • a defense mechanism- look for negative things so we can avoid them
    • we look for positives as a buffer, to keep moving
  84. affect
    current feelings and mood
  85. cognition
    the way in which we process, store, remember, and use information
  86. affect acts as a heuristic
    • holistic judgment
    • affect is seen as informational
  87. affect acts as a prime
    • careful thought
    • affect applied to interpretation of event
  88. mood influences our...
    • memory
    • expectations
  89. James Lange Theory
    Influence of Cognition on Affect
    • people feel physiological arousal
    • they perceive their behavior (focused on self)
    • they cognitively select a label that fits the response
    • they feel the full emotion
    • *occurring in this order
  90. Schacter 2 Factor Theory
    • people feel physiological arousal
    • they search the situation to find a plausible explanation (focused on environment)
    • they cognitively select a label that fits the response
    • they feel the emotion
  91. The Influence of Cognition on Affect
    • cognition alone can evoke emotion
    • thoughts can influence the interpretation of emotionally arousing events
    • expectations influence interpretations of events, which then affect emotion
    • in sum, cognition moderates emotion
  92. Cognitive techniques to maintain emotional equilibrium
    • distraction
    • reinterpretation
    • procrastination
    • yielding to temptation
  93. Facial Expressions- 5 basic Emotions
    • happiness: relaxed eyes, corners of mouth are up
    • sadness: relaxed eyes, corners of mouth are down
    • fear: wide eyes, mouth open as a slit with teeth showing
    • anger: tight mouth, brows drawn down
    • disgust: scrunched nose, brows down, opened nostrils
    • * it is possible to have mixed facial expressions
  94. Adaptors
    (body language)
    • Self Touching
    • flirting
    • self grooming
    • nervousness
  95. Emblems
    (culturally specific)
    • thumbs up
    • middle finger
    • hand made into a phone (call me)
    • waving hello
  96. Hand Gestures (Adjectives)
    • holding hand up to describe someone’s height to help describe sentence
    • level of fullness, holding hands up like a pregnant belly
  97. Gait
    (body language)
    • how we walk, carry ourselves
    • you can tell gender and age by how people walk often times
    • you can tell someone’s mood by how we carry ourselves
  98. touching
    (body language/interaction)
    • intimate non-verbal cue that can be used to communicate liking, dominance, or sexual interest
    • varies greatly on context
  99. Emotional Arousal Approach
    (Theoretical Approach)
    • based on the assumption that lying always leads to arousal
    • possibly because they feel guilty or nervous about someone finding out that they are not telling the truth
    • it was found that this is not true for all
    • ex. antisocial personality
    • - Liars don’t always experience arousal
    • - arousal can result from many sources, not always lying
  100. Cognitive Load Approach
    lying is mentally taxing, however, so can telling the truth
  101. Field Studies
    (lying studing)
    • video footage of real life situations, such as police interrogations, are analyzed
    • Pro- ecological validity (real life situation)
    • Con- difficult to know the truth
  102. Experiments- there's a control
    (lying studies)
    • video footage or transcripts of participants instructed to lie are analyzed
    • Pro- truth is known
    • Con- spontaneous lies could look and sounds different than those that are communicated after permission is given by a researcher
  103. Can Lies be Detected?
    Study done by Vrij, Granhag & Porter
    • summarized past findings using traditional (emotional) methods of lie detection:
    • untrained observers correctly identified lies and truths 53.4% of the time
    • trained observers correctly identified lies and truths 57.66% of the time
    • chance would predict correct identification 50% of the time
  104. What can we do to enhance our ability to detect lies?
    • ignore certain non-verbal cues like gaze aversion and fidgeting/grooming
    • rely on both speech content and nonverbal cues
  105. Nonverbal Cues to rely on
    (lying studies)
    • 1. Speech Content (Mann, Vrij, & Bull, 2004)
    • - vagueness
    • - contradictions

    2. look for inconsistencies between nonverbal and verbal cues

    • 3. Take into account the stressfulness of the situation
    • - understand that nervousness does not always = lying
    • - understanding that thinking hard does not always = lying

    4. Take into account individual differences

    5. Understand the different mental processes of truth tellers and liars