the totality of decisions about the consumption of an offering by decision making units over time
study of processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires
What are the three
consumption stages in a consumption cycle?
Acquiring, using, disposing
What are different ways of acquiring an offering?
buy, rent, lease, borrow, trading, bartering, gift giving, finding, stealing,
What are different ways of disposing of an offering?
sell, throw away, donate, finding a new use for it, getting rid of it permanetly or temporaily, renting, lending,
What is McGuire’s
Information Processing Model?
A way to look at how consumers process information and behave
1. Presentation (exposure)- consumers must first be presented with the persuasive message
2. Attention-important for attitude change to occur
3. Comprehension- understand the position of the message and arguments to support this position
4. Yielding (attitude formation/attitude change)-must agree with the message content
5. Retention- must retain/store in memory, the changed attitude
6. Behavior-must behave on the basis of the changed attitude
What is the definition of
the needs, wants, drives and desires of an individual that lead him or her toward the purchase of product or ideas. The motivations may be physiologically, psycholigcall or enviromentally driven.
What are the consequences of consumer motivation?
1.Goal relevent behavior
2.high-effort information processing and decision making
3. felt involvement
What affects motivation?
Values, goals, needs, perceived risk, personal relevance, incosistency with attitudes
What are consumer goals,
values and needs?
Values: enduring beliefes that a given behavior or outcome is desirable or good. most abstract
Goals: objective that consumers would like to achieve, goal hierarchy, goal valence
Needs: discrepancy between present state & ideal state, are dynamic, exist in hiericary, internally or externally aroused, can conflict
What is goal hierarchy?
Superordinate goals: why do i achieve that for which i strive?
Focal Goals: what is it for which i strive?
Subordinate Goals: How can I achieve that for which I strive?
What is goal valence?
are you negatively or positively reinforced
(approach a postive outcome or avoid negative end results)
What are different types of
conflicts among goals?
Approach-approach:spring break trip to two different places but you dont know which one to go on because you want to do both (THEY ARE BOTH DESIRABLE)
Avoidance-Avoidance: facing two undesirable options for consumer
Approach-avoidance:find desirable and undesirable factors about product so not sure
Understand Maslow’s need hierarchy,
Types of Needs
Survival needs on bottom and less on top
There are different types of needs
Functional:wake up with acne and you have a job interview or date then you have problem that needs to be solved
Symbolic:social approval, show others who they are
Hedonic:engage in fun activities
Maslows need hierarchy characteristics.
Safety:Psycholigical (home security system)
Social: want to feel welcome by others
Egoistic: have a sense of achievment
Self-actuilization: mans desire for fullfillment
product or service where product characteristics such as quality or price are difficult to observe in advance (healthcare)
product or service with features and characteristics easily evaluated before purchase.
goods for which it is difficult for consumers to ascertain the quality even after they have consumed them, such as vitamin supplements.
What is viral marketing?
refers to marketing techniques that use preexisting social networks to produce or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as prodcut sales) through self--replicating ciral process. kind of like the spread of pathological and computer viruses.
Benefits of viral marketing
cheap, extensive reach, high credibility, high efficency,
disadvantages of viral marketing
lack of control, brand dilution. limited segmentation possibilities, "Spam"
the consumer may not posess information accuratly. it could make you biased (brand loyalty)
brand loyalty, people make excuses about things they want to, as a result their info is biased or innacurate
self affirmation/self enhancement
when there is a failure people are less likely to blame themselves and place it on someone else
when yo do this sometimes you dont present info about yourself in a accurate way
(rebellion) people do what there not supposed to do, getting a call from a telemarketer
more moticvation in message because your are more invovled.
If you dont have motivation, ability or opportunites then its not high involvlment
you listen to a tv commercial in japenese but you dont know japanese so low invovled
maybe you are distracte by friends when a tv commverical comes on
What is exposure?
reflects the process by which the consumer comes into physical contact with a stimulus (consumer must see your billboard)
What is selective exposure?
consumers actively seek certain stimuli and avoid others
What is attention?
process by which consumer devote mental activity to a stimulus (Consumer must look at ad message)
What are the characteristics of attention?
Selective: decision on which items we want to focus on any time
Divided: parcel our attention resources into units and allocate some to one task and some to another
Limited: we can attend to multiple things only if processing them is relatively automatic, well practiced and effortless.
What is focal vs. nonfocal attention?
Focal: whats in our line of site
Non focal: peripheral vision
What is preattentive processing?
extent that we can process information from our periphal vision even if we are not aware that we are doing so
How does preattentive processing
affect brand liking and choice?
it makes the brand familiar and we tend to like things are familiar.
What is perception?
registration of stimuli by one of the five senses: vision, hearing, taste, smell and touch
What are absolute
minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a given sensory channel
What are differential thresholds?
Just noticabe differnce, intensity difference needed between two stimuli for consumers to detect the difference
What is subliminal perception?
stimuli presented below the threshold leve of awareness
Is subliminal perception
no note really
How do consumers perceive a
they organize and integrate it in the context of the other things around it. the whole is greater than its parts
What are general principles
of consumer perception?What are differences
Figure and ground, closure, grouping
Figure and ground:people interpret incoming stimuli in contrast to a background (product should be focal point not model)
Closure: a need to organize perceptions so that they form a meaningful whole.
Grouping:group stimuli to form a unified picture or impression, making it easier to process them.
What are schema and
associations?What are their properties?
schema:the set of associations linked to a concept
favorablity, uniqueness and salience
brand images, brand personality, scripts
What is brand image?
subset of associations that reflect what somethings stand for and how favorbaly its viewed. only the most salient
What is brand personality?
What are different dimensions of brand personality?
1. A set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand
What are different dimensions of brand personality?
direct: by the people associated with the brandindirect:by the product attributes, product category associations, brand name, symbol and logo, advertsing style, price and distribution chanel.
Why brand personality is relevant for marketers?
Useful for product targeting, create expectations about key characteristics, performance, benefits and related services
What are taxonomic
an orderly classification of object, with similar objects in the same category (soft drinks)
What is graded structure?
category members vary in how well they are perceived to represent a category
What affects prototypicality?
perceived to be the best example of the category
shared associations: shares the most associations with other memebrs of its own category and shares the fewest with memebers from different categoris (potato chips)
Encounter frequencies: frequency with which an object is encountered as a category member (amazon)
Pioneer brand:first of its kind, sets the standard
What is the difference
between taxonomic categories and goal derived categories?
goal derived: contains things consumers view as relevant to the goal. assing things to the same category because they serve the same goals even though they belong to different taconomic categories. (ex:in flight movies and peanuts because you think they make the flight better) "foods to eat on a diet"
What are categorization and
Categorization: occurs when consumers use their prior knowledge to label, indentify and classify something new
Comprehension: invovles realting information presented in a message to information based on prior experience and stored in memory
What are the results of categorization
how favorably we evaluate an offering, the expectations we have for it, whether we will choose it, and how satisfied we may be with it.
Inferences: features expected
What are the two steps
involved in the comprehension?
What is the definition of attitudes?
A pre-learned predisposition to respond to a stimulus
(attitude object) in a favorable or unfavorable way.
What are the components of
Affect: How people view the object (how you feel) subjective
Behavior: buy, reccomend, not buy
Cognition: How you feel (rational) pragmatic, objective
Understand the hierarchy of effects. What are alternatives of hierarchy of effects?
Standard Learning Hierarchy: Results in strong brand loyalty, assumes high consumer involvement
Low-Involvlement Hierarch: Consumer doesn't have strong bradn preference, consumers swayed by simple stimulus-response connections
Experiential hierarchy: Consumers hedonic motivatiosn and moods
What are the characteristics of attitudes?
2. attitude confidence
3. attitude accessibility:
wether attitude comes quickly
4. attitude persistence:
5. attitude resistance :
likely to be or not likely to be changed
What is mere exposure effect?
Familirity ----> Liking
Wear-Out: repeated exposures build up familiarity and liking to a particular point
What are the implications of mere exposure for marketers?
When classical conditioning is like to occur?
1. Conditioned stimlus precedes the unconditined stimulus
2. the conditioned stimulus is paired consistently with the unconditioned stimulus
3. a logical fit exists between the conditined and unconditioned stimuli