Medical Terminology Ch 18

Card Set Information

Author:
raptors4321
ID:
136205
Filename:
Medical Terminology Ch 18
Updated:
2012-02-20 19:26:48
Tags:
Endocrine System
Folders:

Description:
The Language of Medicine Chapter 18 Endocrine System
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user raptors4321 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones.
    adrenal cortex
  2. Inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
    adrenal medulla
  3. Located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secretion.
    ovaries
  4. Endocrine organ located behind the stomach.
    pancreas. Islet (alpha and beta) cells (islets of Langerhans) secrete hormones from the pancreas. The pancreas also contains cells that are exocrine in function. They secrete enzymes, via a duct into the small intestine to aid digestion.
  5. Four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland.
    parathyroid glands. Some people may have three or five parathyroid glands.
  6. Located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). It weighs only 1/16 of an ounce and is a half inch across.
    pituitary gland (hypophysis)
  7. Two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a ale; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion.
    testes
  8. Located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine.
    thyroid gland
  9. Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
    adrenaline (epinephrine)
  10. Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates the adrenal cortex.
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Also called adenocorticotropin.
  11. Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases salt (sodium) reabsorption.
    aldosterone
  12. Male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex; testosterone is an example.
    androgen
  13. Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis).
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH (vasopressin) increases reabsorption of water by the kidney.
  14. Secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels.
    calcitonin
  15. Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar. It is secreted in times of stress and has an anti-inflammatory effect.
    cortisol
  16. Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways (sympathomimetic). It is part of the body`s `fight or flight` reaction.
    epinephrine (adrenaline)
  17. Estrogen (female hormone) secreted by the ovaries.
    estradiol
  18. Female hormone secreted b y the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex. Examples are estradiol and estrone.
    estrogen
  19. Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis).
    follicle-stimulating hormone. FSH stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production in the testes.
  20. Secreted by alpha islet cells of the pancreas; increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogen (starch) to glucose.
    glucagon
  21. Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates growth of bones and soft tissues.
    growth hormone (GH); somatotropin
  22. Secreted by beta islet cells. Helps glucose (sugar) to pass into cells, and it promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen.
    insulin
  23. Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males.
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
  24. Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure (sympathomimetic).
    norepinephrine. Nor- in chemistry means a parent compound from which another is derived.
  25. Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis); stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth.
    oxytocin (OT)
  26. Secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium.
    parathormone (PTH)
  27. Secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
    progesterone
  28. Secreted by the anterior lobe fo the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); promotes mlk secretion.
    prolactin (PRL)
  29. Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); growth hormone.
    somatotropin (STH)
  30. Male hormone secreted by the testes.
    testosterone
  31. Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenophypophysis). Acts on the thyroid gland to promote its functioning.
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); thyrotropin
  32. Secreted by the thyroid gland; also called tetraiodothyronine. Increases metabolism in cells.
    thryoxine (T4)
  33. Secreted by the thyroid gland; increases metabolism in cells.
    triilodothyronine (T3). Note: The extra n in -thyronine (pronounced THĪ-rō-nēn) avoids the combination of two vowels (o and i).
  34. Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis); antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
    vasopressin
  35. Hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine is an example.
    catecholamines
  36. Hormones (steroids) produced by the adrenal cortex. Examples are cortisol (raises sugar levels), aldosterone (raises salt reabsorption by the kidneys), and androgens and estrogens (sex hormones).
    corticosteroids
  37. Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells; examples are potassium, sodium, and calcium.
    electrolyte
  38. Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism.
    glucocorticoid. Cortisol raises blood sugar and is part of the stress response.
  39. Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment.
    homeostasis
  40. Substance, secreted by an endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of that organ or gland.
    hormone
  41. Region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. It secretes releasing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland.
    hypothalamus
  42. Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
    mineralocorticoid
  43. Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited.
    receptor
  44. Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland.
    sella turcica
  45. Steroids (androgens and estrogens) produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics.
    sex hormones
  46. Complex substance related to fats (derived from a sterol, such as cholesterol), and of which many hormones are made. Examples are estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
    steroid. Ster/o means solid; -ol means oil.
  47. Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system.
    sympathomimetic. Adrenaline is a sympathomimetic hormone (it raises blood pressure and heart rate and dilates airways).
  48. Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.
    target tissue
  49. aden/o
    gland
  50. adren/o, adrenal/o
    adrenal gland
  51. gonad/o
    sex glands (ovaries and testes)
  52. pancreat/o
    pancreas
  53. parathyroid/o
    parathyroid
  54. pituitar/o
    pituitary gland; hypophysis
  55. thyr/o, thyroid/o
    thyroid gland
  56. andr/o
    male
  57. calc/o, calci/o
    calcium
  58. cortic/o
    cortex, outer region
  59. crin/o
    secrete
  60. dips/o
    thirst
  61. estr/o
    female
  62. gluc/o
    sugar
  63. glyc/o
    sugar
  64. home/o
    sameness
  65. hormon/o
    hormone
  66. kal/i
    potassium
  67. lact/o
    milk
  68. myx/o
    mucus
  69. natr/o
    sodium
  70. phys/o
    growing
  71. somat/o
    body
  72. ster/o
    solid structure
  73. toc/o
    childbirth
  74. toxic/o
    poison
  75. ur/o
    urine
  76. -agon
    assemble, gather together
  77. -emia
    blood condition
  78. -in, -ine
    a substance
  79. -tropin
    Stimulating the function of (to turn or act on)
  80. -uria
    urine condition
  81. eu-
    good, normal
  82. hyper-
    excessive; above
  83. hypo-
    deficient; below, under; less than normal
  84. oxy-
    rapid, sharp, acid
  85. pan-
    all
  86. tetra-
    four
  87. iod/o
    iodine
  88. tri-
    three
  89. Overactivity of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis.
    hyperthryroidism. Most common form of this condition is Graves disease.
  90. Underactivity of the thyroid gland.
    hypothyroidism
  91. myxedema
    Advanced hypothryoidism in adulthood.
  92. cretinism
    Extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
  93. Cancer of the thyroid gland.
    thyroid carcinoma
  94. Excessive production of parathormone.
    hyperparathyroidism
  95. Deficient production of parathyroid hormone.
    hypoparathyroidism
  96. Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens.
    adrenal virilism
  97. Group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex.
    Cushing syndrome
  98. Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex.
    Addison disease
  99. Benign tumor the adrenal medulla; tumor cells stain a dark or dusky (phe/o) color (chrom/o).
    pheochromocytoma
  100. Excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia.
    hyperinsulinism
  101. Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells.
    diabetes mellitus (DM)
  102. Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities.
    acromegaly
  103. Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
    gigantism
  104. Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism
    dwarfism
  105. Deficiency of all pituitary hormones.
    panhypopituitarism
  106. Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
    syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
  107. Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin).
    diabetes insipidus (DI)
  108. Also known as fasting blood sugar test. Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours.
    fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
  109. Measurement of hormones, electrolytes, glucose, and other substances in serum (blood) and urine as indicators of endocrine function.
    serum and urine tests
  110. Measurement of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream.
    thyroid function tests
  111. Measurement of eyeball protrusion (as in Graves disease) with an exophthalmometer.
    exophthalmometry
  112. X-ray imaging of endocrine glands in cross section and other views, to assess size and infiltration by tumor.
    computed tomography (CT) scan
  113. Magnetic waves produce images of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to locate abnormalities.
    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  114. Radioactive iodine is administered orally, and its uptake by the thyroid gland is imaged to assess thyroid function.
    radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) scan
  115. Scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland after intravenous administration of a radioactive (technetium) compound.
    thyroid scan
  116. Sound waves show images of endocrine organs.
    ultrasound examination

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview