The Language of Medicine Chapter 18 Endocrine System
Outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones.
Inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secretion.
Endocrine organ located behind the stomach.
pancreas. Islet (alpha and beta) cells (islets of Langerhans) secrete hormones from the pancreas. The pancreas also contains cells that are exocrine in function. They secrete enzymes, via a duct into the small intestine to aid digestion.
Four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland.
parathyroid glands. Some people may have three or five parathyroid glands.
Located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). It weighs only 1/16 of an ounce and is a half inch across.
pituitary gland (hypophysis)
Two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a ale; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion.
Located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine.
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates the adrenal cortex.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Also called adenocorticotropin.
Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases salt (sodium) reabsorption.
Male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex; testosterone is an example.
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis).
antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH (vasopressin) increases reabsorption of water by the kidney.
Secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels.
Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar. It is secreted in times of stress and has an anti-inflammatory effect.
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways (sympathomimetic). It is part of the body`s `fight or flight` reaction.
Estrogen (female hormone) secreted by the ovaries.
Female hormone secreted b y the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex. Examples are estradiol and estrone.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis).
follicle-stimulating hormone. FSH stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production in the testes.
Secreted by alpha islet cells of the pancreas; increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogen (starch) to glucose.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates growth of bones and soft tissues.
growth hormone (GH); somatotropin
Secreted by beta islet cells. Helps glucose (sugar) to pass into cells, and it promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure (sympathomimetic).
norepinephrine. Nor- in chemistry means a parent compound from which another is derived.
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis); stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth.
Secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium.
Secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
Secreted by the anterior lobe fo the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); promotes mlk secretion.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); growth hormone.
Male hormone secreted by the testes.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenophypophysis). Acts on the thyroid gland to promote its functioning.
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); thyrotropin
Secreted by the thyroid gland; also called tetraiodothyronine. Increases metabolism in cells.
Secreted by the thyroid gland; increases metabolism in cells.
triilodothyronine (T3). Note: The extra n in -thyronine (pronounced THĪ-rō-nēn) avoids the combination of two vowels (o and i).
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis); antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
Hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine is an example.
Hormones (steroids) produced by the adrenal cortex. Examples are cortisol (raises sugar levels), aldosterone (raises salt reabsorption by the kidneys), and androgens and estrogens (sex hormones).
Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells; examples are potassium, sodium, and calcium.
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism.
glucocorticoid. Cortisol raises blood sugar and is part of the stress response.
Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment.
Substance, secreted by an endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of that organ or gland.
Region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. It secretes releasing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland.
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited.
Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland.
Steroids (androgens and estrogens) produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics.
Complex substance related to fats (derived from a sterol, such as cholesterol), and of which many hormones are made. Examples are estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
steroid. Ster/o means solid; -ol means oil.
Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system.
sympathomimetic. Adrenaline is a sympathomimetic hormone (it raises blood pressure and heart rate and dilates airways).
Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.
sex glands (ovaries and testes)
pituitary gland; hypophysis
cortex, outer region
assemble, gather together
Stimulating the function of (to turn or act on)
deficient; below, under; less than normal
rapid, sharp, acid
Overactivity of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis.
hyperthryroidism. Most common form of this condition is Graves disease.
Underactivity of the thyroid gland.
Advanced hypothryoidism in adulthood.
Extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
Cancer of the thyroid gland.
Excessive production of parathormone.
Deficient production of parathyroid hormone.
Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens.
Group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex.
Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex.
Benign tumor the adrenal medulla; tumor cells stain a dark or dusky (phe/o) color (chrom/o).
Excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia.
Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells.
diabetes mellitus (DM)
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism
Deficiency of all pituitary hormones.
Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin).
diabetes insipidus (DI)
Also known as fasting blood sugar test. Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours.
fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
Measurement of hormones, electrolytes, glucose, and other substances in serum (blood) and urine as indicators of endocrine function.
serum and urine tests
Measurement of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream.
thyroid function tests
Measurement of eyeball protrusion (as in Graves disease) with an exophthalmometer.
X-ray imaging of endocrine glands in cross section and other views, to assess size and infiltration by tumor.
computed tomography (CT) scan
Magnetic waves produce images of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to locate abnormalities.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Radioactive iodine is administered orally, and its uptake by the thyroid gland is imaged to assess thyroid function.
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) scan
Scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland after intravenous administration of a radioactive (technetium) compound.