MNGT

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lisrosey
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136222
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MNGT
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2012-02-19 17:17:49
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MNGT Test
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MNGT Test 1
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  1. Managers
    • Get things done through other people.
    • They make decidsons, allocate resources, and direct activities of others to attin goals
    • The people who oversee the activites or others and who are responsible for attainging goals in these organizations
    • aka-administrators
  2. Organizations
    Consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions ona realitvell continuous basis to acheive a common goal or set of goals
  3. Managment Functions
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Leading (commanding, coodination)
    • controlling
  4. Planning
    • Defining an organizations goals
    • Establishing an overall strategy for achieveing those goals
    • Developinga comprehnesive set of plans to integreate and coordinate activities
  5. Organizaing
    • Determining what tasks are to be done
    • Who will do them
    • How the tasks are to be grouped
    • Who reports to whom
    • Where decisions are to be made
  6. Leading
    • Motivating employees
    • Direcct the activities of others
    • Select the most effective communication channels
    • Resolve confilicts amoung members
  7. Controlling
    • Moniter the organizations performance
    • Moniter, co,mparing and potential correcgting
  8. Managment Roles
    • Interpersonal
    • Informational
    • Decisional
  9. Interpersonal Roles
    • Figureheard: Symbolic head; required to perform a number of routine duties of a leagal or socialnature
    • Leader: Responsible for the motivation and idrection of employees
    • Liason: Maintains a network of ouside contacts who provide favors and information
  10. Informational roles
    • Monitor: Recieves a wide variety of info; serves a snerve center of ineteral and exteral infor of the organizaton
    • Disseminator: Transmits infromations recieve from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization
    • Spokesperson: Transmits infromation to outsiders on organizations plans, plicies, actions, and results
  11. Decisional Roles
    • Entrepreneur: Searches organiztion and its enviroment for opportunines and intitias projects to being about change
    • Disturbance handler: REsponsible fro correctivce acton when organizationg faces importatn unexpeced dirturbances
    • Resouce Allocator: makes or approves significatn organization decisons
    • Negotiator: Resoonsible for represendting the organizztion at major negotioatso
  12. Managerial Skills
    • Technical: The ability to apply specialed knowlege or expertise
    • Human: The ability to work with, understand, andmotivate other people aboth indivuidually and in groups
    • Conceptual: THe mental abiltiy to analyze and diagnose complex situations
  13. Organiazional behavior
    A field of study that invesstigares teh impact that individual, groups, and structure have on behaviro within organiztions for the purpose of applying such knowledge towrd imporving orangizatons effectivness
  14. Systematic Study
    Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusinos based on scientific evidence.
  15. EBM
    • Evidence-based Management
    • BAsing managerial decisions on the best available scientfic evidence
  16. Intuition
    A gut feeling not necesarily supported by reserach
  17. Contriubute to OB Field
    • Psychology: the schince that seeks to measuere, explain, and somtimes change the behavior of humans and other animals
    • Social Psychoology: an area of psychology that bklends concepts form pshychology abd socialogy and that focuses on the influence of people on one another
    • Sociology: the study of peopl ein relation to their soical enviornment or culture
    • Anthropology: the study of soicieties to learn about uman beings and their activities
  18. Challenges in OB
    Globalizaion: Increased foreign assignments, Working with people from diff cultures, coping with anticapitalism, overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor, managing people during the war on terror
  19. Workforce Diversity
    The concpt that organizaionts are becomeing more heterogeneous interms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientaton, and inclusion of other diverse groups.
  20. Improving Quality and Productivity
    The success of any effore at imporving quality and productivity must include their employees
  21. Improving Customer Service
    OB can help creat cultures in which employees are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeable, prompt in responding to customers needs, and willing to do what;s necessary to please the customer
  22. OB opportunies
    • Improving people skills
    • Stimulationgn innovationa nd change
    • Coping with temporariness
    • Workin gin newtwokred organizations
    • Helping employees balance work-life conflicts
    • Creating a positive work enviornment
    • Improving ethical behavior
  23. Positive Organizational scholarship
    An areao f ob reserach that concers hwo organizations develop human strength, foster vitatliy and resilience, and unlock potential
  24. Ethical Dilemmas
    Situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct
  25. The OB model
    • Individual level
    • Group level
    • Orangainzation systmes level
  26. Dependent Variable
    • The key factore that you wont to explain or predice tthast is affected by some other factor
    • Productivity
    • Absenteesm
    • Turnover
    • Devient workplace behavior
    • Organizaitonal citizenship behavor
    • Job satisfactions
  27. Productivity
    A performance mearsure that includes effectivness and efficiencey
  28. Effectiveness
    Achievement of goals
  29. Efficiency
    The ratio of effecive outpu to the input required to achieve it
  30. Absenteeism
    The failure to reprot to work
  31. Turnover
    Volunary and involuntary permanent withdrawla from an organization
  32. Devient workplace behavior
    Voluntary behavior that violaltes signifcant organizatonal norms and in so doing threatens teh well being of the organiaton or its members
  33. OCB
    Discretionaly behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirments but taht nevertheless promotes the effective functionong of the organiuzation
  34. Job Satisfactions
    A positive feelign about one;s job resulting from an evaluation of it characteristics
  35. The OB model values
    Independent variable: the presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable
  36. Individual-Level
    • Managers must work with used human beings
    • They enter an organiazaiont with some intact characteristics that will effect their behavior.
    • These are things biographical (age, gender, married), Personality(emotional framework), Values and attitudes, basic ability
    • And perception, motivation, individual learning
  37. Group Level
    • People act different in groups than individually
    • Communication, conflict, leardership, power and politics,
  38. Organization system Level
    • Just as groups are more than the sum of their individual members, so are organiztions more than the um of their member groups.
    • The desing: the organizations internal cultute, human resourse and policies and practices, and organization stucture and design
  39. Ability
    An individuals capacity to perfomr the various tase in a job
  40. Intellecutal abilkites
    The capacityu to do mental acitivies- Thinking, reasoning, and problem solving
  41. Multiple intelligences
    Intellegence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional and cultureal
  42. GMA
    General mental ability: an overal factor of intelligence, as suggested by the positive correlations amoung specific intellectual ability demiensions
  43. Physical Abilites
    • The capacity to do tasks that demand stamin, dexterity, strength, and similar charactersistics
    • Strangth
    • Flexibility
    • balance, stamina, body coordination
  44. Biographical Charcteristics
    • Persoanl charactersistics such as age, gender, race and length of tenure- that are objective an easaliy obtained from personnel records
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Race
    • disability
    • Tenor
    • Religion
    • Sexual orientaions
    • Gender Identity
  45. Emotional Intelligence
    • The ability to detect and to manage empotional cues and information
    • 1) be self-aware 2) detect emotions in others 3) manage emotional cues and info
  46. Attitudes
    Evaluative statements or judgments concering ogjects, people or events
  47. The main components of Attitudes
    • Congintive component: evaluation, The opinion or belief segmen t of an attitude
    • Affective: feeling, The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude
    • Behavioral: action, An intntiona to behave in acertain way toward someion or something
  48. Cognitive dissonance
    • Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or etween behavior and attitudes
    • People seek consistency amoung their attitudes and between their behavior.
  49. Job Attitudes
    • The three main atttidudes are:
    • Job satisfaction
    • Job involovemtn
    • organizaiontal commintment
  50. Job Satisfaction
    Descrivea a positive ffeeling about a job, resluting from an evaluationm of its characteristics
  51. Job Involvment
    • The degree to which a person indentifies whith a job actively participares in it, and considers performan ce inportant to self worth
    • Psychological empowerment: Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness and autonomy
  52. Oraganizational Commitment
    • Identifying witha particular organization and it's goals while wishing to maintain membership in the organization
    • Affective: emotiaonl attachment ot org
    • Continuance commitment: economic value of staying
    • Normative: moral or ethical obligations
  53. Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction
    • Exit (leaving)
    • Voice (improve condition)
    • Neglect (get worse)
    • Loyalty (passively waiting to imporve)
  54. Outcome of satisfaction
    • Job performance more productive
    • Org Citizenship behaior influcences OCB
    • Customer satisfaction
    • Show up to work
  55. Personality
    The sum total of wys in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others
  56. Heredity
    Factors determined at conceptiomn, ones bilogical physiological, an inherent psychological makeup
  57. Personality traits
    Enduring characteristics that descrive an individuals behavior
  58. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    • The most widely used personality-assessment insturment in the world
    • Extraverted verses introverted'Sensing versus intuitive
    • Thinking versus feeling
    • Judging versus percieveing
  59. Big Five Personality Model
    • A personality assessment model that taps five basic dmensions
    • Extraversion: socialble, gregarious, assertive
    • Agreeableness: good natured, ooperative, trusting
    • Concientiousness: responible, dependable, persisitant, organized
    • Emotional Stability: self-confident, secure, depressed, insecure
    • Openness to experience: imagination, sensitiyty, curiosity
  60. Core Self-evaluation
    • Degree to which an individual likes or dislikes himself
    • If they see themself capable and effective
    • Feels in control of envionment or plowerless
  61. Machiavellianism
    The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotianl distance, and belives that ends can justify means
  62. Narcissism
    • The tendency to be arrogant, have a gradious sese of self inportance
    • require excessive admiratoin
    • sense of entitlement
  63. Self-monitoring
    Measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behaviro to external situational factors
  64. Risk Taking
    • Takes more risk which can lead to more effective performancde
    • It might be a major obstical as well.
  65. Type A personality
    Aggrive involvment in a chronic, incessant styruggle to achieve moere and more in less and less time and iif necessary against the opposing efforts of other things or other people
  66. Proactive Personality
    People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and perserve until meaningful change occures
  67. Values
    Basic convictions that a specifec mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end -state existence
  68. Hofstede's Framework
    • Power Distance
    • Individualism
    • Collectivism
    • Masculinity
    • Femimininty
    • Uncertianty avoidance
    • Long-term orientation
    • Shor-term orientation
  69. Power Distance
    • The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizatons in sidrisbuted uneqally.
    • High: large inequalities and ealth are toleratied
    • Low: societies that stress equlity and ooportunity
  70. Incividualism vs Collectivism
    • Individualis: the degree to wich prople prefer to act as indiiduals rather than as members of groups and believe in dindivvualk righs above all esle
    • collectiism: emphasias tight social frameowkr in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look atfet them and protect them
  71. Masc vs Fem
    • Mas: degree to which culture favors traditional masculine roles such as power and conrole instead of as equals
    • Fem: culture sees little difference betweenmale and femaile roles and treats as equals
  72. Uncertaunbty Avoidance
    Culture attribute taht describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertaun and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them
  73. Long vs short term orientaion
    • Long: culture emphasizes the future, thrift and persistence
    • Short: emphasiss the past and present, respect for traditon and fulfillment of social obligaitons
  74. Perception
    A process by which individualas organize and interpred their sensory impresssing in order to give meabubg to their environment
  75. Factores influence perception
    • Factors in Situation: time, work setting, social setting
    • Factore in Perceiver: attitudes, motives, intersts, experience, expectations
    • Factors in Target: novelty, motion, sounds, size, background, similarity
  76. Perceptual readinesss
    • Causes us to see things we expect to see
    • Differnt people will select stimuli based on their needs and personalities
  77. Figure-ground Illusions
    • Stimuli that contrast with the surrounding enviornment are more likely to be selected
    • Repetition of stimulus makes it more likesly to be percieived
  78. Attributions Theory
    • An attempt to determine wheather an individuals behavior is internally or externally caused
    • Internal: we beielvie to be under the peronal control
    • Externally: what we impagine the situation forced the individual to do
    • Distinctiveness: if the individual displayes different behaviors in differnt situations
    • Consensus: if everyone who faces a similar situation responds the same way
    • Consistency: Does the person respond the same way over time?
  79. Self-Serving Bias
    The tendendcy for individual to attribue their own successes to interal factore and put the balame for failues on external factores
  80. Fundamental attribtion erro
    The tendency to underesteimate the influecne fo external lfactore and overestimae the influene of ointeral factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
  81. Halo Effect
    Drawing a general inpressoin about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
  82. Contrast effect
    Evaluation of a person's characteristics that are affectec by comparisons with other peole recently encountered who rank high or lower on the same characteristics
  83. Selective perception
    The tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basius of ones interset, background, experience, and attitudes
  84. Stereotyping
    Judging someone on the basis of one's percepton of the group to which tht person belongs
  85. Profiling
    A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out, ypically on bsis of race, for intesnive inquiry, scurtiny, or investigation
  86. Employment Interview
    Percdeptual biases of rater saffect the accurac y of interviews judgment of aplicants
  87. Performacne Expectaions
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion efefect)
    • The lower or higher perfomrance of employees relfects preconcieved leader expectaiuons about employee capabilities
  88. Performance Evaluations
    Appraisals are aften the sujective perceptions of apprasiers of another employee's job performance
  89. Ethnic Profiling
    A form of stereotypin in which a group of individuals is singled out-typically on the bais of race or ethnicity-for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation
  90. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    • Pygmalion Effect
    • That people's expectaions or bleifs determin their behavior and performance thus erving to make their expectaions come true
  91. Decision Making in Orgs
    • Rational model
    • Bounded rationality
    • Intution
  92. Rational Modle
    • Rational: characterized by making consistent, value-maximizing choices within specifies constraints
    • Model: Describes how indiviudal should behave in order to maximize some outcome
  93. Rational Decision Making model steps
    • 1) Define problem
    • 2) Identify decision criteria
    • 3) Allocate weights to criteria
    • 4) Develop the alternatives
    • 5) Evaluate the alternatives
    • 6) Select the best alternative
  94. Bounded RAtionality
    Constuc simplifeed modesl that extract the essential featues from problems wiout capturinmg all their complexity
  95. Intuity decision making
    An unconscious process craeted out of sitilled experiences
  96. Overconfidence Bias
    Overconficence is stongest when individuals are considering issures or problkems that are outside their are of expertise
  97. Anchoring Bias
    The tendency to fixate on intical information and fail to adequatly adjust to subsequent information.
  98. Confirmation Bias
    • Represents a specfic case of selective perception.
    • The tendency to seek out info that reaffims psat choices and to discoutn info that contractcs past judgments
  99. Avialability bias
    Tendency for peole to base their judgment on info that is readily avialibe to them
  100. Excalation of Commitment
    An increased commitment to precvious decisons in spite of negative information
  101. Randomness Error
    The tendency of individual to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events
  102. Winner's curse
    Argues taht the winning paricipant in competive auction typically pay too much for the intem
  103. Hindsight Bias
    The tendency to believe fasely after the ouscome of an even is actually known, what we have accuratley predicted that outcome
  104. Organizational Constraints
    • Organizations shape deciosn off of evaluatona dn reward systs to comply with the orgs formal regualtions and to meet oranizational imposed time constraints
    • Performance Evaluation
    • Rewards systems
    • Formal Regulations

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