Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch 6

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jess4444
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Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch 6
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2012-03-11 22:18:50
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classical conditioning
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Chapter 6 – Learning
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  1. Define learning
    A relatively enduring change in behavior, one that results from experience
  2. Behaviorism
    objective observation of overt behavior as the only valid indicator of psychological activity.

    (from the book: “A psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior.”[pg.21]) (everything comes through your senses)
  3. Behaviorism: What are the main principles?
    -Based on belief that animals and humans are born with the potential to learn just about anything

    -Believed in by John Locke; Tabula rasa (Blank Slate)

    -Nurture was everything

    -start out as a blank slate, then gain learning through experience. cause effect, cause, effect)
  4. Behaviorism: What is its response to psychoanalysis?
    John B. Watson argued that the Freudian theory was unscientific and ultimately meaningless, he scorned any psychological enterprise that focused on things that could not be observed directly such as people’s mental experiences

    -he acknowledged that thoughts and beliefs existed but he believed that they could not be studied using scientific method (pg 237)
  5. Behaviorism: Key figures
    John Watson: he rejected the Freudian and Structuralist focus on mental events and verbal reports, complete nature over nurture/ Skinner
  6. Classical Conditioning: Definition
    from the book: “A type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response.”[pg.237]
  7. Classical Conditioning: Who first presented this type of
    conditioning?
    Ivan Pavlov
  8. Four parts to a classical conditioning experiment: (The Office example)
    • Unconditioned Response (UR)
    • Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
    • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    • Conditioned Response (CR)
  9. Classical conditioning experiment: Unconditioned Response (UR)
    unlearned automatic behavior (salivating, dryness of mouth) {Unlearned} salivation → (REFLEX)
  10. Classical conditioning experiment: Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
    a stimulus that elicits a response (Altoids) {Unlearned} food
  11. Classical conditioning experiment: Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    stimulates a reaction only after learning takes place (computer noise) {Learned} bell
  12. Classical conditioning experiment: Conditioned Response (CR)
    reflex that occurs when only the conditioned stimulus is presented, acquired learned response (ex. reaching for Altoids) {Learned} salivate
  13. Classical Conditioning: Acquisition
    the initial learning of behavior, formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
  14. Classical Conditioning: Extinction
    the CS no longer predicts the US (from the book: “A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus. [pg.240])
  15. Classical Conditioning: Spontaneous recovery
    CS produces the CR after a time of extinction, temporary, will fade quickly. (from the book: “A process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus.”[pg.241])
  16. Classical Conditioning: Stimulus generalization
    Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response. (from the book: “Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.” [pg.241]) less of a response
  17. Classical Conditioning: Stimulus discrimination
    learn to discriminate between 2 close things if one is paired with the US. (from the book: “A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus.” [pg.241])
  18. Classical Conditioning: Second-order conditioning
    using a 2nd US to produce the CR(For example, an animal might first learn to associate a bell with food (first-order conditioning), but then learn to associate a light with the bell (second-order conditioning).
  19. Classical Conditioning: Phobia treatment
    counter conditioning

    systematic desensitization
  20. Classical Conditioning: Phobia treatment:

    Phobia
    an acquired fear out of proportion to the real threat (irrational)
  21. Classical Conditioning: Phobia treatment:

    Counter Conditioning
    This example was used in class though not sure how reliable it is...ex: phobia of spiders, dump a ton on top of you

    Is the process of extinguishing a response to a specific stimulus by reinforcing a competing, usually incompatible, response it. In the clinical setting a phobic object, such as a snake, is paired with relaxation on the basis that this is incompatible with the original response of anxiety. Associate the unconditioned response (fear) with an unconditioned stimulus which is good/enjoyable/relaxing (chocolate).
  22. Classical Conditioning: Phobia treatment:

    Systematic desensitization
    ex: you get used to spiders, look at them constantly/ overtime.
  23. Classical Conditioning: Little Albert:

    Conducted by
    John B. Watson (the father of behaviorism) and Rayner
  24. Classical Conditioning: Little Albert:

    Method used
    Classical conditioning
  25. Classical Conditioning: Little Albert:

    Findings
    the pairing of the rat (CS) and the clanging sound (US) lead to the rat producing fear (CR) on its own. The fear response generalize to other stimuli presented with the rat initially, such as the costume masks or and other things with similar textures.
  26. Classical Conditioning: Drug addiction
    Classical conditioning plays an important role in drug addiction. Conditioned drug effects are common and demonstrate conditioning’s power.
  27. Operant Conditioning: Definition
    The conscious learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future.

    (Thorndike’s Puzzle Box{Cat pushes lever to escape})
  28. Operant Conditioning: Who first presented this type of conditioning?
    B. F. Skinner
  29. How is operant conditioning different than classical conditioning?
    While both result in learning, the processes are quite different.One of the simplest ways to remember the differences between classical and operant conditioning is to focus on whether the behavior is involuntary or voluntary. Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence.

    reinforcement is found in operant conditioning

    operant conditioning: a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future. ex. Giving a dog a treat when teaching it to roll over.

    classical conditioning: a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response. ex: Pavlov’s dogs
  30. Operant Conditioning: Thorndike’s Puzzle Box
    A cat was placed in a box that had a button on the inside that would cause the door to open and release the cat. After the cat made it out of the box it was returned. Each time the cat pushed the button faster and faster.
  31. Operant Conditioning: Thorndike’s Puzzle Box

    Conducted by
    Edward Thorndike
  32. Operant Conditioning: Thorndike’s Puzzle Box

    Method used:
    operant conditioning
  33. Operant Conditioning: Thorndike’s Puzzle Box

    Findings:
    any behaviour that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is more likely to occur again, and that those that lead to an “annoying state of affairs” are less likely to occur again.
  34. Skinner Box:
    A rat is placed in a box with a lever on one of the sides. The rat is moving around and hits the lever and it spits out a pellet of food. The rat starts hitting the lever over and over to get more pellets out. The action the researchers want is for the rat to hit the lever and the reinforcer is the pellet of food.
  35. Skinner Box:, Conducted by:
    B. F. Skinner
  36. Skinner Box:, Method used:
    operant conditioning
  37. Findings
    shaping- a process of operant conditioning; it involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior ( the guy that drew on the board we shaped him by clapping when he did something right)
  38. Operant Conditioning: What is a reinforcer?
    Something that changes the frequency of a behavior. Increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated.
  39. Operant Conditioning: Two types of reinforcers
    Positive

    Negative
  40. Operant Conditioning: Two types of reinforcers

    Positive
    Give them something to get them to do what you want.(reward) increases chances of behaviour. GIVE something GOOD (press lever, give food)
  41. Operant Conditioning: Two types of reinforcers

    Negative
    Take something away to get them to do what you want. increases behavior by removing aversive stimuli. TAKE AWAY something BAD. (press lever, take away FyI shock)
  42. Operant Conditioning: Primary reinforcer
    reinforcers that satisfy biological needs ex: food and water
  43. Operant Conditioning: Secondary reinforcer
    events or objects that serve as reinforcers but do not satisfy biological needs ex: compliment, money, A on paper
  44. Operant Conditioning: What is a punishment?
    Punishment decreases the probability of behavior
  45. Operant Conditioning: Two types of punishments
    Positive: decreases behavior by presenting an aversive stimuli. GIVE something BAD. ( punishment that occurs with the administration of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behaviors recurring)

    Negative: decreases the probability of behavior by removing a positive stimuli. TAKE AWAY something GOOD. ( punishment that occurs with the removal of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behavior’s recurring)

    With both punishments and reinforcements a Positive P or R is when something is given and Negative P or R is when something is taken away regardless of whether the thing itself is good or bad.
  46. Operant Conditioning: Two types of punishments

    Positive
    decreases behavior by presenting an aversive stimuli. GIVE something BAD. ( punishment that occurs with the administration of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behaviors recurring)

    With both punishments and reinforcements a Positive P or R is when something is given and Negative P or R is when something is taken away whether the thing itself is good or bad.
  47. Operant Conditioning: Two types of punishments

    Negative
    decreases the probability of behavior by removing a positive stimuli. TAKE AWAY something GOOD. ( punishment that occurs with the removal of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behavior’s recurring)

    With both punishments and reinforcements a Positive P or R is when something is given and Negative P or R is when something is taken away whether the thing itself is good or bad.
  48. Operant Conditioning: Of reinforcement and punishment,
    which one should parents endeavor to use?
    Reinforcement
  49. Operant Conditioning: Of reinforcement and punishment,which one should parents endeavor to use?

    For punishment to be effective it must be:
    reasonable

    unpleasant

    applied immediately so that the relationship between the unwanted behavior and the punishment is clear
  50. Operant Conditioning: Shaping
    a process of operant conditioning; it involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior ( the guy that drew on the board we shapped him by clapping when he did something right)
  51. Operant Conditioning: Schedules of reinforcement
    • Interval
    • Ratio
    • Fixed
    • Variable
  52. Operant Conditioning: Schedules of reinforcement

    Interval
    based on units of time; produce slower learning
  53. Operant Conditioning: Schedules of reinforcement

    Ratio
    based on units of behavior; produce fast learning
  54. Operant Conditioning: Schedules of reinforcement

    Fixed
    a schedule in which reinforcement is consistently provided upon each occurrence

    given after a specific number of occurrences or after a specific amount of time. (pg255 of the text)
  55. Operant Conditioning: Schedules of reinforcement

    Variable
    a schedule in which reinforcement is applied at different rate or at different time
  56. Operant Conditioning: Latent Learning
    learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement
  57. Operant Conditioning: Study on Latent Learning:

    Conducted by
    Edward Tolman
  58. Operant Conditioning: Study on Latent Learning:

    Method used:
    one group of rats: ran maze with no food reward box

    2nd group of rats: ran maze with food reward box ( showed improvement overtime)

    3rd group of rats: ran maze with no food reward for first 10 days then a reward was given after the 10 days
  59. Operant Conditioning: Study on Latent Learning:

    Findings
    Rats may learn a path through a maze but not reveal their learning which is called latent learning until it is reinforced. There is a distinction between acquisition and performance
  60. What are the biological restraints on operant conditioning?
    animals have a hard time learning behaviors that run counter to their evolutionary adaptation
  61. Operant Conditioning: Cultural learning (memes)
    a unit of knowledge transferred within a culture
  62. Operant Conditioning: Imo the monkey
    Imo the monkey developed and unwittingly passed along to her fellow monkeys the meme or cultural knowledge of washing sweet potatoes in the ocean to get the sand off.
  63. Operant Conditioning: Modeling
    the imitation of behavior through observational learning
  64. Operant Conditioning: The Bobo Doll Experiment

    Conducted by:
    Albert Bandura
  65. Operant Conditioning: The Bobo Doll Experiment

    Method used
    2 groups of children were shown a film of an adult playing with a large inflatable doll, bobo: one group saw a the adult play nicely with it and another group saw the adult play aggressively with it.
  66. Operant Conditioning: The Bobo Doll Experiment

    Findings
    when children were allowed to play with the doll later, those who had seen the aggressive display were more than twice as likely to act aggressively toward the doll
  67. Operant Conditioning: Rhesus Monkeys and learning fear

    Conducted by:
    Susan Mineka
  68. Operant Conditioning: Rhesus Monkeys and learning fear

    Method used
    2 sets of monkeys wild and laboratory raised had to reach across box to get food. then a snake was placed in box the wild monkeys would not reach across the snake filled box but the laboratory monkeys would.
  69. Operant Conditioning: Rhesus Monkeys and learning fear

    Findings
    after watching wild reared monkeys react laboratory reared monkeys no longer reached across the box; fears can be learned through observations
  70. Operant Conditioning: Mirror neurons
    neurons that are activated during observation of others performing an action
  71. Operant Conditioning: Biological basis of reinforcement:

    What neurotransmitter is heavily involved in pleasure centers?
    dopamine
  72. Operant Conditioning: Habituation
    a decrease in behavioral response following repeated exposure to nonthreatening stimuli

    you get used to something and no longer respond to it
  73. Operant Conditioning: Sensitization
    an increase in behavioral response following exposure to a threatening stimulus
  74. Operant Conditioning: Hebb’s rule & Long-term potentiation
    neurons that fire together wire together -

    the strengthening of a synaptic connection so that postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated

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