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What is the result of a lesion in the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus?
Loss of ipsilateral adduction and contralateral nystagmus.
What is the result of lesion to the abducens motor nucleus?
Loss of ipsilateral eye abduction.
What is the result of lesion to the oculomotor nucleus?
Loss of ipsilateral eye adduction.
What is a cause of Internuclear Opthalmopalagia?
Compromised Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus due to Multiple Sclerosis
What is the "real life" movement caused by Superior Oblique muscle in comparison to if the muscle is tested in isolation during a neurological test?
Real life: moves eyeball down and out
Testing it: moves eyeball down and in
What is the result of a lesion to the Ventral Trigeminothalamic Tract?
Loss of ability to feel pain and temperature from the ipsilateral side of the face.
Although ventral trigeminothalamic tract also has fibers from the Chief Sensory Nucleus (2 point touch, vibration and pressure), this information is also supplied to that hemisphere through the Dorsal trigeminothalamic tract.
What information is carried in the Ventral trigeminothalamic tract?
Contralateral sensory: 2 point touch, vibration and pressure
Ipsilateral sense of pain and temperature.
What is the result of a lesion in the Spinal Trigeminal Tract?
Where does this tract come from and go to?
Runs from Trigeminal N., through Trigeminal ganglion, into the pons, descends downwards into the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus.
Loss of pain and temperature from the ipsilateral half of the face.
What is the result of a lesion in the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus
loss of pain and temperature from Ipsilateral half of the face.
What is the result of lesion to the Corticobulbar Tract?
(what is this tract?)
Contralateral loss of movement of muscles of facial expression in the lower quadrant of the face.
It is the nerves that run from the cortex down to the Facial Motor Nucleus
What is the Organ of Corti?
It is specialized epithelium lining the cochlear duct, which is in the cochlear region of the bony labyrinth.
What is the Tectorial Membrane?
It is the membrane covering the cilia ("hairs") in the cochlear duct of the Organ of Corti.
What is the Basal Membrane?
What creates an action potential in the inner ear?
Basilar membrane is bottom membrane in the Organ of Corti where the ciliated hairs are.
The sound waves stimulate therefore vibrate the basilar membrane, causing the hairs in the tectorial membrane to bend. This causes release of the neurotransmitter from the base of the hair cells .
How does the action potential get transmitted to the cochlear division of CN VIII?
The hair cells of the Organ of Corti are innervated by dendrites of cochlear bipolar neurons.
What is the Macula?
It is the specialized epithelium within the Vestibule Portion of the bony labyrinth, that lines the Utricle and saccule.
What is the Utricle and Saccule?
They are 2 segments of one portion of the "tube" lining the Vestibule.
What is the Otolithic Membrane?
It is the membrane lying over the "hairs" embedded in the Macula
What is Crista Ampularis
It is the specialized epithelium lining the Semi-circular ducts which is the "tube" inside the Semi-circular canal of the bony labyrinth.
What is the Cupula?
It is the membrane overlying the hairs of the Crista Ampularis
What is Internuclear Opthalmoplegia?
Deficit in lateral gaze- ipsilateral loss of adduction of the eye and contralateral nystagmus