Politics Exam 1
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one of those truths which to a correct and unprejudiced mind carries its own evidence along with it, and may be obscured, but cannot be made plainer by argument or reasoning
a government which derives all of its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people, and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure for a limited period, or during good behavior
The first object of government
the protection of the faculties of men, especially that of acquiring property
Five Discoveries of the New Science of Politics
the regular distribution of power into distinct departments
the introduction of legislative balances and checks
the institution of courts composed of judges holding their offices during good behavior
the representation of the people in the legislature by deputies of their own election
the enlargement of the orbit within which such systems are to revolve; in other words, the creation of a large republic
The great and radical vice of the Articles of Confederation
The principle of legislation for states or governments, in their corporate or collective capacities, and as contradistinguished from the individuals of whom they consist. In other words, the Congress did not have power that was proportionate to their responsibility because it had no power extending to each individual citizen of America due to its lack of coercion of magistracy.
Two ways in which a large republic (as opposed to a small
republic) can frustrate a majority faction
Alarge republic will contain a greater variety of parties and interests and therefore make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens.
Where there is a consciousness of unjust or dishonorable puposes, communication is always checked by distrust in proportion to the number whose concurrence is necessary.
Right that is in the State Constitutions but not in the English Bill of Rights
freedom of religion
inconvenience of the state of nature (Locke)
lack of effective executive authority
the authority of the states under the Articles of Confederation
sovereign in most respects
Two main provisions of the Magna Carta
39. No freemen shall be taken or imprisoned or disseised or exiled or in any way destroyed, nor will we go upon him nor send upon him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.
40. To no one will we sell, to no one iwll we refuse or delay, right or justice.
a duty imposed by the law of nature (Locke)
preserve others if your own preservation comes not in competition
rights guarantied in several American state constitutions
that had been guarantied in the English constitutional tradition
right to trial by jury
According to the authors of the Petition of Right, which of the following is prohibited by the principle that the King may not impose taxes without the consent of the realm?
any forced loans without consent of Parliament
According to the Declaration of Independence, when a
government become destructive of the rights of individuals, what is the nature of the resulting right of revolution?
the people must revolt
Which of the following is NOT a grievance against the King listed in the Declaration?
deprivation of religious freedom
Which of the following is a power that Congress did not have under the Articles of Confederation but does have under the Constitution?
lay and collect tax
According to Madison in which of the following respects does
the proposed Constitution establish a national government?
operation of its powers
According to Madison in which of the following respects does the proposed Constitution establish a federal government?
Which of the following illustrates the partly-federal, partly-national character of the proposed Constitution?
electoral college (sources of powers)
James Madison: Federalist #
10, 39, 40, 43, 47, 49, 51
Alexander Hamilton: Federalist #
1, 9, 15, 16, 23, 31
According to Hamilton in Federalist 16, which of the
following is most likely to occur if the Articles of Confederation is not replaced with a government like that of the proposed Constitution?
How many chambers constituted the Congress under the
Articles of Confederation?
What, according to Federalist #10, is the “most common and durable source of faction”?
various and unequal distribution of property
Definition of "Faction"
a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adversed to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community
Which of the following is not a necessary part of the definition of faction?
Liberty is to faction, what air is to ________.
“If men were angels, then no ______ would be necessary.”
Against what injustice does the writ of habeas corpus serve as a protection?
Complete: according to Hamilton, either the magistracy or
the military must supply the ________________ necessary to give laws the necessary sanction and thereby render a government a genuine government.
Who selected the members of Congress under the Articles?
Which of the following persons enjoyed the right to bear arms under the American state bills of rights that did not enjoy this right under the English Bill of Rights?
the people, that is, all citizens
Which of the following is NOT an example that Hamilton gives
of a self-evident truth?
no one should be a judge in his own cause
According to Madison, what would likely happenwhere a republican government where majority factions can readily oppress a minority faction?
factions would eventually demand establishment of an authority independent of society
According to Publius, which of the following prevents men
from agreement and understanding in ethics?
passions obscure reason
Which of the following rights is not declared in the English Bill of Rights?
freedom of the press
In which of the following documents does one find some
reference to the writ of habeas corpus?
Petition of Right and Constitution 1787
Which of the following persons enjoyed, under the Magna
Charta the freedom from deprivation of life without due process of law?
Which of the following persons enjoyed the right to bear arms under the English Bill of Rights?
Complete “In a nation of philosophers…, [a] reverence for
the laws would be sufficiently inculcated by the voice of an enlightened reason. But a nation of philosophers is as little to be expected as the philosophical race of kings wished for by
Complete: “…in all great changes of established governments…it is impossible for the people spontaneously and universally to move in concert towards their [revolutionary] object; and it is therefore essential that such changes be instituted by some __________ propositions, made by some patriotic and
respectable citizen or number of citizens.”
informal and unauthorized
Violent Death of a confederacy
dissolution of the Union through Civil War between complying and noncomplying states
Natural Death of a confederacy (MOST LIKELY TO HAPPEN)
state of disorder caused by several states' putting themselves upon an equal footing with the delinquent members by an imitation of their example.
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