Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch 9&10

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Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch 9&10
2012-03-07 15:33:04

Chapter 9 and 10 – Motivation and Emotion, Health
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  1. Arousal
    physiological activation (ex. increased brain activity) increased autonomic responses (quickened heart rate, increased sweating, muscle tension)
  2. Drive
    psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs (ex. need= food, drive= hunger, behavior= eating)
  3. Homeostasis
    • tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium (think of a thermostat... if the temperature is off from the set point on the thermostat then the furnace or air conditioner operates to adjust the temperature.)
    • when the body is too cold we shiver to warm up
    • when the body is too warm we sweat to cool down
  4. Yerkes-Dodson law
    performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with increasing arousal graph is an inverted U (too little we are bored, too much we are overwhelmed)

    Ex. a student will perform best on exams when they are feeling moderate anxiety too little anxiety makes them inattentive/unmotivated too much anxiety can interfere with their thinking ability
  5. Extrinsic Motivation
    • the external goals an activity is directed towards
    • Ex. working to earn a paycheck
  6. Intrinsic Motivation
    • value or pleasure that is associated with an activity that has no apparent external goal. Behavior that is performed for their own sake. Just enjoyable.
    • Ex. playing, listenting to music
  7. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    basic needs (food and water) are satisfied before higher needs, such as achievement

    • starting from the bottom up
    • -physiological (hunger, thirst, warmth, air, sleep)
    • -safety (security, protection, freedom from thereats
    • -belonging and love (acceptance, friendship)
    • -esteem (good self opinion, accomplishments, reputation)
    • -self-actualization (living to full potential, achieving person dreams and aspirations)
  8. Ekman’s research on universality of emotion

    Which six emotions did he test for?
    anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise

    people from the countries of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Japan, and the US were all able to recognize the 6 emotional expressions
  9. Display rules
    rules learned through socialization that dictate which emotions are suitable to given situations
  10. Somatic markers
    bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an action’s consequences

    ex: queasy feeling in your stomach when you look over the ledge of a tall building
  11. The General Adaptation Syndrome
  12. The General Adaptation Syndrome

    Threes Stages
    • Selye described the Threes Stages of physiological response to stress:
    • -alarm stage
    • fight or flight
    • the body is most likely to be exposed to infection and disease, so the immune system kicks in and the body begins fighting back

    • -resistance stage
    • defenses prepare for a longer, sustained attack against the stressor

    • -exhaustion stage
    • variety of physiological and immune systems fail
  13. HPA system
    biological system responsible for stress response

    -brain (stress begins here with the perception of some stressful event) → hypothalamus (sends chemical message) → pituitary gland (secretes hormones) → adrenal glands (secrets cortisol - responsible for many of the feelings we have when we are stressed)
  14. Coping

  15. Coping

    Emotion-focused Coping
    taking a break and distracting yourself eg. going for a run
  16. Coping

    Problem-focused Coping
    tackle the problem at hand and try to overcome it
  17. Effects of genetics and environment on obesity
    • 1980s study in Denmark
    • -BMI of adopted children was strongly related to the BMI of their biological parents and not at all to the BMI of their adoptive parents

    genetics determines whether a person can become obese, but environment determines whether that person will be obese

    genetics determine sensitivity to environmental influences

    more than 300 genetic markers or genese have been identified as playing some role in obesity
  18. Effectiveness of restrictive dieting
    does not work

    • most diets fail primarily because of the body’s natural defense against weight loss
    • -body weight is regulated around a set-point determined primarily by genetic influence

    • the body responds to weight loss by slowing down the metabolism and using less energy
    • -after the body has been deprived of food, it needs less food to maintain a given body weight
  19. Body image, male and female in society
    females- ultrathin

    males- taller and weigh more
  20. Bulimia
    • -dieting, binge eating, purging
    • -self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, or abuse of laxative
  21. Bulimia

    average weight, or slightly overweight upper-middle- and upper-class Caucasian women
  22. Anorexia
    eating disorder characterized by an excessive fear or becoming fat, and thus refusing to eat

    self-imposed starvation
  23. Anorexia

    upper-middle- and upper class Caucasian girls.