Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch 6 Summary

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jess4444
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Psych 111 Exam 2 - Ch 6 Summary
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2012-02-19 05:08:52
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Chapter 6 Learning - Summary
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  1. Chapter 6 summary (Learning)
    -How did the behavior study of learning develop?

    -How does operant conditioning differ from classical conditioning?

    -How does watching others affect learning?

    -What is the biological basis of learning?
  2. How did the behavior study of learning develop?
    -behaviorial responses are conditioned

    -phobias and addictions have learned components

    -classical conditioning involves more than events occuring at the same time

    -critical thinking skill: recognizing and avoiding inappropriate association effects in reasoning
  3. How does operant conditioning differ from classical conditioning?
    -reinforcement increases behavior

    -both reinforcement and punishment can be positive or negative

    -operant conditioning is influenced by schedules of reinforcement

    -biology and cognition influence operant conditioning

    -the value of reinforcement follows economic principles
  4. How does watching others affect learning?
    -learning can be passed on through cultural transmission

    -learning can occur through observation

    -animals and humans imitate others

    -critical thinking skill: avoiding the association of events with other events that occur at the same time
  5. What is the biological basis of learning?
    -dopamine activity underlies reinforcement

    -habituation and sensitization are simple models of learning

    -long-term potentiation is a candidate for the neural basis of learning
  6. How did the behavioral study of learning develop?

    Behavior responses are conditioned:
    Pavlov established the principles of classical conditiong, a process that occurs when associations are made between two stimuli, such as the sound of a bell and a piece of meat. This type of learning is based on reflexes, such as the salivation that occurs in response to the meat. Acquisition, discrimination, generalization, and extinction are measured in classical conditioning. Some emotional responses are learned through conditioning.
  7. How did the behavioral study of learning develop?

    Phobias and addictions have learned components:
    Phobias are learned fear associations. Similarly, addiction involves a conditioned response, which can result in withdrawel symptoms at the mere sight of drug paraphernalia, and tolerance, the need for more of the particular drug, when that drug is administered in a familiar context, to get a high comparable to the one obtained earlier.
  8. How did the behavioral study of learning develop?

    Classical conditioning involves more than events occuring at the same time:
    Not all stimuli are equally potent in producing conditioning. Animals are biologically prepared to make connections between stimuli that are potentially dangerous, such as learning to freeze when shock is administered. Animals are also predisposed to form predictions that enhance survival, such as judging the likelihood that food will continue to be available at one location.
  9. How does Operant Conditioning differ from classical conditioning?

    Reinforcement increases behavior:
    A behavior's positive consequences will likely strengthen it or make it more likely to occur. Shaping is a procedure in which successive approximations of a behavior are reinforced, leading to the desired behavior. Reinforcers may be primary (those that satisfy biological needs) or secondary (those that do not directly satisfy biological needs).
  10. How does Operant Conditioning differ from classical conditioning?

    Both reinforcement and punishment can be positive or negative:
    In either positiove reinforcement or positive punishment, a stimulus is delivered after the animal responds. In negative reinforcement or negative punishment, a stimulus is removed after the animal responds. Positive and negative reinforcers increase a behavior's likelihood; positive and negative punishments decrease a behavior's likelihood.
  11. How does Operant Conditioning differ from classical conditioning?

    Operant conditioning is influenced by schedules of reinforcement:
    Reinforcement can be delivered at either a fixed rate or a variable that depends on the number (ratio) or time (interval) of responses. A variable rate of reinforcement leads to resistance to extinction.
  12. How does Operant Conditioning differ from classical conditioning?

    Biology and cognition influence operant conditioning:
    An organism'sbiological makeup restricts the types of behaviors the organism can learn. Latent learning takes placewithout reinforcement. Such learning often is not performed until a reinforcer is introduced.
  13. How does Operant Conditioning differ from classical conditioning?

    The value of reinforcement follows economic principles:
    In choosing between reinforcers, human and nonhuman animals consider the likelihood of obtaining each reward and the amount of time it might take to receive each one.
  14. How does watching others affect learning?

    Learning can be passed on through cultural transmission:
    Memes (knowledge transferred within a culture) are analogous to genes, in that behaviors are selectively passed on from generation to generation.
  15. How does Operant Conditioning differ from classical conditioning?

    Learning can occur through observation:
    Observational learning is a powerful adaptive tool. Humans and other animalslearn by wathcing others' behaviors and the consequences of those behaviors.
  16. How does Operant Conditioning differ from classical conditioning?

    Animals and humans imitate others:
    Modeling occurs when one individual reproduces another individual's behavior. Vicarious learning occurs as the result of one individual seeing another individual's behavior reinforced or punished. Mirror neurons are activated when we watch a behavior, just as when we actually perform the behavior.
  17. What is the biological basis of learning?

    Dopamine activity underlies reinforcement:
    The brain has specialized centers that produce pleasure when stimulated. Behaviors that activate these centers are reinforced. The nucleus accumbens (a part of the limbic system) has dopamine receptors, which are activated by pleasurable behaviors. Through conditioning, secondary reinforcers can also activate dopamine receptors. Drugs also increase activation, which can lead to addiction.
  18. What is the biological basis of learning?

    Habituation and sensitization are simple models of learning:
    Repeated exposure to a stimulus results in habituation, a decrease in behavioral response. Sensitization is an increase in behavioral response to a new threatening stimulus.
  19. What is the biological basis of learning?

    Long-term potentiation is a candidate for the neural basis of learning:
    Synaptic connections are strengthened when neurons fire together. This occurs in the hippocampus and, in fear responses, in the amygdala. The receptor NMDA is required for long-term potentiation. Genetically altered mice that had more efficient NMDA receptors were superlearners. LTP is also important for fear conditioning.

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