BIO CH 6

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Anonymous
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136307
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BIO CH 6
Updated:
2012-02-19 12:32:41
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Bio
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Chapter 6
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  1. Electrons movement:
    • Gains electron = reduction
    • Loses electron = oxidation (reduction reactions)

    Molecule reduced has higher energy
  2. Energy:
    "capacity to do work"
  3. Thermodynamics:
    • Science of energy exchanges
    • Kcal
  4. Energy can be in 1 or 2 states:
    • 1) Kinectic: movement
    • 2) Potential: stored
  5. 1st law of thermodynamics:
    • Energy can be changed from 1 form to another, but not created or destroyed.
    • Form:
    • Heat- Kinetic/potential
    • Light- Kinectic
    • Atomic energy- Potential
  6. 2nd las of thermodynamics
    • In energy conversions the potential energy of the final stage will be less than that of the initial state (some energy given off)
    • Exergonic
    • Endergonic
  7. Exergonic reactions: FIG. 4.6 and 6.5
    Energy Given Off
  8. Endergonic: FIG. 4.6 and 6.5
    Requires energy. Must be coupled to exergonic one
  9. Entropy
    Measure of disorder or randomness

    C6H12O6 (glucose) ----> 6CO2 + 6H20 + energy in motochondria "catabolic reactions"

    • H= heat content, potential energy, enthalpy
    • ^H = change in H
    • G= Gibbs free energy, available/usable energy
    • ^G=^H-T^S
    • T= Temperture
    • S=Entrpopy

    Usable energy is reduced due to increase in entropy
  10. Enzymes:
    Involved in virtually all reactions (metabolism)
  11. Enzyme synthetic reactions
    endergonic 'take in energy'

    Anabolism
  12. Enzyme breakdown reactions
    exergonic 'give off energy'

    Catabolism
  13. Enzymes Structure:
    • globular protein made of 1 or more chains
    • -Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quat. Structures

    Active Site and Substrate Molecules (FIG 6.8)
  14. Speed of Enzymes
    1000 substrates molecules per second

    Enzymes are acting as catalysts (speed up reactions, not used up)

    BIO CATALYST SPECIFIC
  15. Regulation/ Control of Enzymes
    • 1) production of enzyme
    • 2) some enymes have control site (allosterksite)
    • -End Point
    • -Feedback
    • 3)Substrate of molecule availble?
    • 4) "cofactors" available
    • 5) pH correct? optimum pH
    • 6) Temp. correct
  16. "cofactors"
    • Molecules that help enzymes (carry electrons)
    • 1) some are organic (coenzmes)
    • -vitamins/coenzymes B6,B12 (electron carriers)
    • 2) inorganic molecules
  17. Etc. Enzymes
    • -some are free in cytoplasm / or attached
    • -some are single / or in groups
  18. Are there any non-protein (non-enzymes catalyst?
    YES - RNA (ribozymes) help reactions
  19. ATP
    • Energy Currency Molecule
    • -endergonic reaction: J & K ----> L
    • J,K,L = compounds

    • J&K need enrergy of 10kcal/mol
    • this reaction neds to be coupled to exorganig reaction

    • ATP -----> ADP + P (phosphours group)
    • -7.3kcal/mole released

    needs 10kcal but only has 7.3 so need 2 ATP's to get to 10

    ATP is constantly being made and used.
  20. Origin of specifin biochemical pathway:
    • 1st organism (cells) -used organic molecules in H20 around them
    • Example: R=simple comound, if R begins to run short selection for cell who could help make R begins =T+S....if T begins to run short...F+G is found to help (works backwards)

    F+G ---> (T)+S----> R

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