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- Gains electron = reduction
- Loses electron = oxidation (reduction reactions)
Molecule reduced has higher energy
"capacity to do work"
- Science of energy exchanges
Energy can be in 1 or 2 states:
- 1) Kinectic: movement
- 2) Potential: stored
1st law of thermodynamics:
- Energy can be changed from 1 form to another, but not created or destroyed.
- Heat- Kinetic/potential
- Light- Kinectic
- Atomic energy- Potential
2nd las of thermodynamics
- In energy conversions the potential energy of the final stage will be less than that of the initial state (some energy given off)
Exergonic reactions: FIG. 4.6 and 6.5
Energy Given Off
Endergonic: FIG. 4.6 and 6.5
Requires energy. Must be coupled to exergonic one
Measure of disorder or randomness
C6H12O6 (glucose) ----> 6CO2 + 6H20 + energy in motochondria "catabolic reactions"
- H= heat content, potential energy, enthalpy
- ^H = change in H
- G= Gibbs free energy, available/usable energy
- T= Temperture
Usable energy is reduced due to increase in entropy
Involved in virtually all reactions (metabolism)
Enzyme synthetic reactions
endergonic 'take in energy'
Enzyme breakdown reactions
exergonic 'give off energy'
- globular protein made of 1 or more chains
- -Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quat. Structures
Active Site and Substrate Molecules (FIG 6.8)
Speed of Enzymes
1000 substrates molecules per second
Enzymes are acting as catalysts (speed up reactions, not used up)
BIO CATALYST SPECIFIC
Regulation/ Control of Enzymes
- 1) production of enzyme
- 2) some enymes have control site (allosterksite)
- -End Point
- 3)Substrate of molecule availble?
- 4) "cofactors" available
- 5) pH correct? optimum pH
- 6) Temp. correct
- Molecules that help enzymes (carry electrons)
- 1) some are organic (coenzmes)
- -vitamins/coenzymes B6,B12 (electron carriers)
- 2) inorganic molecules
- -some are free in cytoplasm / or attached
- -some are single / or in groups
Are there any non-protein (non-enzymes catalyst?
YES - RNA (ribozymes) help reactions
- Energy Currency Molecule
- -endergonic reaction: J & K ----> L
- J,K,L = compounds
- J&K need enrergy of 10kcal/mol
- this reaction neds to be coupled to exorganig reaction
- ATP -----> ADP + P (phosphours group)
- -7.3kcal/mole released
needs 10kcal but only has 7.3 so need 2 ATP's to get to 10
ATP is constantly being made and used.
Origin of specifin biochemical pathway:
- 1st organism (cells) -used organic molecules in H20 around them
- Example: R=simple comound, if R begins to run short selection for cell who could help make R begins =T+S....if T begins to run short...F+G is found to help (works backwards)
F+G ---> (T)+S----> R