Micro Test # 2
Card Set Information
Micro Test # 2
Micro Test # 2
Koch's postulates demonstrate what?
that a particular germ causes a particlular dieseas
What does Koch's Postualte # 1 state?
Microbe must be present in every case of the disease.
What bacterium causes Anthrax? where is it found?
in the soil
What species of Bacillus cuasative agent of Anthrax?
What special strucutre do Anthrax make that help it survive?
What is the dormant stage of a bacteria that helps it get from one host to another?
What is Woolsorter's Disease?
Anthrax from sheep = the humans got it from shearing/working with sheep.
What does Koch's second postulate state?
Agent must be isolated from a diseased host and must grow in pure culture.
What is a liquid medium used to grow cultures?
What is a medium?
set of nutrients that grow microbes in the lab.
If you lab broth is cloudy in appearance, you would call it what?
What is it called when you have chunks/ long chains growing in your culture?
What is the scum layer gorwing on top of a cultre called?
Pellicle = usally means the cabteria likes air, they go up top to get air.
What is the stuff at the bottom of your culture called?
What does CFU stand for?
Colony Forming Unit
Where would you find a CFU?
on a streaked petry dish
Would a virus grown on an ager?
NO, it needs a live cell
What is agar?
a complex of polysaccharide extracted from a marine algae
Liquid agar in a test tube is called what?
What do you use to transfer a bacteria sample onto an agar?
a sterile inoculating loop
What is the purpose of streaking a petry plate?
to spread out the bacteria
What does Koch's third postulate state?
When the agent froma pure culture is inoculated into healthy, but seceptible , experimental hosts, the agent must cause the same disease.
What is the appearance of a specimen growing in your petry plate called?
What is cellular morphology?
the appearance of cells you observe through a microscope
What is a culture?
A population of bacteria.
Being able to see different types of bacteria present in a culture is an advantage of what?
Using a solid agar
By usung a solid agar you can better estimate what?
the amount of each type of bacteria present
What is the only way to isolate a pure culture?
Use a solid agar for growing
What does Koch's fourth postulate state?
The agent must be reisolated from the inoculated disesed experimental host and identified as being the identical to the original secific agent.
Flagella is what?
a whip/ tail like appendange found on bacterium
What is pluaral for flagella?
Flagellum (more than one)
What is it called when a bacteria has one flagella?
Define Monotrichous =
singular flagella found on a bacterium
What are polar flagella?
monotrichous bacteria = haveing the flagella at one end or the other
What is Amphitrichous
bacteria with two flagella
Define Peritrichous =
a bacteria with flagellum all over the surface
If a bacteria have tufuts of flagellum are called what?
and what is it a good example of ?
a peritrichous bacteria with flagellum all over it
Causes UTI's (section 5) anaerobic, G+, Rod
Name a bacteria that have cillia:
NONE - bacteria do not have cillia
What are Fimbriae ?
short tiny projections or fingers
What bacteria have diplococcus shape and are covered in fimbriae?
What does diplococcus refer to?
shape = divided into pairs
Define Pili =
tiny, hollow, projection, through which bacteria transfer plasmids
What is the pathway through which bacteria transfer DNA/ genetic material?
Pili (singular) Pilus (plural)
Define plasmid =
extra piece of DNA/ genetic material is in that gets shared between bacteria - not all bacteria have them.
Members of a species that posses a plasmid are called what?
What is a strain
genetic mutation of a species
What king of bacteria carries a few genes including the genes for the the pilus, antibotic resistance, special toxins, structures...
F+ (like being male)
What is a bacteria called that has received plasmid from another bacteria .. that would now have the genes for a pilus.
What is the process of passing on plasmids to more F+ cells?
Where would you find genes for antibiotics or special strucutress?
In the plasmid (DNA/genetic material)
name the protective structure found outside of the cell wall of the organism that secretes it:
What are the benefits of a capsule?
helps stick to host tissues/ enviornmental surfaces
harder to be eaten by phagocytes - slippery, harder to catch
harder for antigens to be recognized
What special features do
capsules & flagella
stick to paddles, but swim when in water
What is a bacteria found in hospitals and every day life that highly resistant to antibiotics?
What feature does
capsules to stick to your teeth
What are spiral shaped bacteria called?
What is a band of contractile protien called?
what special feature do spirochaetes have?
What do spiral shaped bacteria have a flagella or an axial filament?
What bacteria causes syphillis? what feature does it have?
/ axial filament
What is the major compenent of a bacterial cell wall?
What is peptidoglycan?
major component of a bacteria cell wall
What is peptidoglycan composed of?
alternating sugars linked by tetrapeptides
N. acetylglucosamine / N. acetylmuranic acid
Gram negative cell walls have 2 components, name them:
1) 1-2 layers peptidoglycan
2) outer memberane
What is composed of phospholipids / lipoprotiens / lipopolysaccarides?
The outer membrane of a Gram negative cell wall
Division I bacteria are Gram negative? or postive?
What portion of a Gram negative bacteria is endotoxic?
the lipid portion - the bacteria dies, it breaks down and releases toxins which illicit a non specific immune response
Fever, inflammation, redness ... these are what type of immune response?
What has a thin, heterogenous, endotoxic cell wall?
Gram negative bacteria
Gram negative bacteria appear what color when using the Gram stain technique?
A cell wall with one component is called what?
Homogenous / Gram negative
A cell wall with 2 componenets is called what?
Heterogenous / Gram Negative
What make a Gram positive cell wall thick?
6-8 layers of peptidoglycan
Protienation waste comes from what and cause wha type of response?
excretions from endotoxins of a Gram positive bacteria; they illicit a specific immune response/ symptoms
What special feature do most Cocci bacteria have?
Capsule - which make them sticky - espicially those with cocci in the name
Clostridium are know for what?
excreteing neuro-toxins that cause specific immune responses
C. perfringens (gang-green)
What bacteria have a plasma membrane?
What type of bacteria cause food intoxication?
Gram positive / get sick quick b/c they excrete exotoxins on the food
Food infection is caused by what?
Gram negative bacteria - they die and release endotoxins
What can benefit bacteria by providing protection from stomach acids?
Outer Membrane of Gram negative bacteria
Name a bacteria that are Gram - and cause food infection:
Staphylococcus causes what type of food poisoning?
Intoxication / Gram positive food poisoning
Facultative anerobic Gram negative bacteria is important why?
They include Family Enterobacteriacae from section 5 = enteric flora
Gram negative have ______ walls.
What is the most common STD?
Name 2 obligate intracellular parasites:
Rickettsias & Chlamydia
Chlamydia & Rickettsias have what type of cell wall?
Thin walls, but they ARE Gram positive
What division do Rickettsias & Chlamydia belong to?
Division I = because they have a thin cell wall
Division II are Gram _____.
Gram positive / they have a thick cell wall.
Coliform & Enteric bacteria are Gram ____.
Name a Gram + normal bowel flora:
it is also Vancomycin resistant (VRE)
What does pyogenes mean?
What division do Acid Fast bacteria belong in?
Mycolic acid is what?
wax found in the cell wall of acid fast bacteria
Mycrobacterium genus have what special charecteristic?
thick wall (acid fast) /
TB / Leprosy
What is the mordant in acid fast staining?
the wax in the cell wall - mycolic acid
Acid fast stains are in what genus?
Tuberculosis is caused by what?
Mycology is the study of what?
Molds / Fungi
Mycology does not apply to what?
mycobacteria / mycoplasm
Division III bacteria have what type of cell wall?
Section 10 includes Mycoplasma bacteria, what does this mean?
the plasma membrane is the outter boundary, they lack a cell wall.
What antibiotic targets the cell wall; enzyme that peptidoglycan?
Penicillin or Cephalosporins
What treatment would disrup the plasma membrane by interuppting ATP production:
What treatment targets ribosomes by inhibiting protien synthesis?
Tetracycline / Erythromycin
What type of ribosomes do bacteria have?
70s / 80s are what type of measurements?
density of bacterial ribosomes is 70s
Where do bacteria make ATP?
Ribosomes oin bacteria make what?
protiens for the cells use
What is an inclusion?
stored nutrients in bacteria
Graying of the teeth is a side effect of what treatment?
Tetracycline, which interfers with protien synthesis, which will effect the growth of a young child or pregnant woman
What are some side effects of antibiotics?
kill all flora
sun sensitivity due to decrease melinin production
bacteria become resistant to drugs
Firmcutes have a FIRM cell wall or Division ____.
Gracilicutes are what division?
I - gracefull / thin cell wall
Tenericutes are what division?
III - tender / no cell wall
Mendosacutes are what division?
What is the general name for bacteria that cause ENT bacteria?
phneumococcus (not a genus name)
What bacteria have no cell wall, just a plasma membrane?
What bacteria respond to ampacillin ?
staphylococcus / streptococcus
used on ENT infections
What do we have in our plasma membrane to toughen it up?
What happens in the first phase of bacterial population growth?
Acclimation or Log growth
What bacteria are characteristically pyogenic?
Streptococcus / Staphylocccus
they also have capsules to make them sticky
What happens in the Log phase of bacterial growth?
Exponential growth, this is the optimal time for growth
The acclimation phase is also called what?
Lag phase = no net change in cell numbers.
In what phase does the number of cell growths = the number of deaths?
Stationary phase / carrying capacity of enviornment
What is the final phase of bacterial population growth ?
decline / death phaese
What is the fisrt phase of bactrial population growth?
Lag phase / acclimation phase
How does Ampicillin effect bacteria?
by disrupting cell wall; enzymes that make the peptidoglycan
Are cocci motile?
NO, they don't move
Which section has mostly flagellated bacteria?
Section 5 / G- rods / facultativley anaerobic
Pyogenic bacteria have mostly what shape?
Cocci - puss generation
Name 2 Spirachetes:
Treponema pallidum (syphillus)
Borrelia = causes lyme dease
Strepto is a ____ arrangement.
Staphylo are a ____ arrangement.
What bacteria is known for it diploccocus arranement?
What bacteria is known for its yellow color?
is a Gram ____ bacteria, which would appear ___ in color when stained.
Negative / pink
What bacteria appears red on a petry plate?
Serratia marcescens = produces red pigment
What bacteria is Gold in appearance?
G+ / cocci / Section 12
What bacteria are G+ Endospore forming ?
Bacillus anthracis & Clostridium difficlie
Bacilllus megaterium is Gram ___.
positive (section 13)
What is a granuale/ who has them?
inclussion / Corynebacterium (diptheria)
What staining techiniques does NOT include heat fixing?
Plasmodia is what?
the protozoan parasitic protist that causes malaria
Where do we make ATP ?
What is the endospore coat made of?
Dipicolinic acid, peptidyglycan, protiens, hard salts (calicium ions)
What makes endospores heat resistant?
Wha bacteia has a virus that makes it patheogenic?
Corynebacterium diptheriae = the granule
Where would I found peptidoglycan?
in the bacteria cell wall
1-2 in Gram -
6-8 in Gram +
Where would you find an outer memebrane?
Gram negative cell wall =
1-2 layers of peptidoglycan in cell wall
outter layer is the OUTER MEMBRANE is lypid endotoxins
What is bacteriostatic?
Penecillin = stops bacteria from dividing = effects cell wall
Name an air loving bacteria:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa = obligate aerobe
What are Psychropiles?
cold loving organisms
Microphiles are ______ loving organisms.
love a little bit of air; grow just below th surface of in a test tube.
Lactobacillus is a _____ loving organism.
acid / Acidophile
Vibrio like aht type of envirnment?
Alkaline / alkalinophiles
Give an example of an Alkalinophile:
is an example of what type of organism?
Anaerobic, Gram +, ROD
in the absense of oxygen
What are 2 examples of Facultative anaerobe?
Bacillus / Staphylococcus
What type of bacteria is associated with food poisoning from chicken?
What type of bacteria is associated with food poisoning from fish?
What causes bubonic plague?
What causes food poisining from beef?
What causes a vaginosis?
Name 2 obligate intracellular parasites?
Rickettsiae & Chlamydiae
have a thin cell wall / Division I