anatomy and physiology-1st test.txt

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anatomy and physiology-1st test.txt
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2012-02-19 13:12:14
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anatomy physiology
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chapters 1-4 study guide
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  1. what is the topic of anatomy that study's systems?
    systemic
  2. organelle containing cristae
    mitochordrion
  3. golgi apparatus's function is?
    packing and storing
  4. movement on the outside of the cell?
    cilia/flagellum
  5. what is used to store energy?
    vacuoles
  6. person stands erect with feet slightly apart eyes foward palms facing forward is called
    anatomical postition
  7. main axis (head, neck, trunk)
    axial region
  8. head region
    cephalic
  9. throat region
    cervical
  10. lies vertically and cuts the body into anterior and posterior parts
    cornal (frontal)
  11. lies bertically divides the body into left and right
    midsaggaital plane
  12. horizontally divides into superior and inferior parts
    transverse
  13. cuts diagonally between horizontal and vertical parts
    oblique
  14. subdivides into the cranial and the vertebral
    dorsal body cavity
  15. runs through the vertebral columns and endorses the spinal cord
    vertebral
  16. subdivides into the thoratic cavity the abdominal and the pelvic cavity
    ventral body cavity
  17. houses lungs heart and large vessel ribs
    thoratic cavity
  18. soft cavity with not bony protection
    abdominopelvic cavity
  19. mouth teeth tounge
    oral/digestive cavity
  20. tiny bone that transmit sound in the ear
    middle ear
  21. atoms form molecules
    chemical level
  22. cells and their subunits
    cellular level
  23. a group of cells performing a common function
    tissue level
  24. a structure made by more than one tissue
    organ level
  25. organs working together for a common purpose
    organ system
  26. the reslut of all simpler levels working together
    organismal level
  27. internal enviornment remains distinct from the external enviornment (inside, outside)
    maintains boundaries
  28. displacement of the whole organism or human as a whole as well as rearrangement of relative postions of the organisms parts
    movement
  29. ability to detect and respond to external stimuli
    responsiveness
  30. the breakdown of ingested foodstuff to simpler molecules that can be absorbed in the blood
    digestion
  31. the sum of chemical processes in an organism
    metabolism
  32. the process of removing waste from the body
    excretion
  33. forming new cells to replace damaged celss or even to replace the whole organism
    reproduction
  34. increase in organism size caused when anabolism exceeds catabolism
    growth
  35. measurement of how acidic or how basic a solution is
    pH scale
  36. if an atom loses and electron is becomes positive
    cation
  37. if an atom gains electrons it becomes negative
    anion
  38. a substance of high moleculare weight with long chain like molecules consisting of many similar(repeating) units
    polymer
  39. joined together by dehydration synthesis(lose water)
    monomers
  40. add water to break down monomers
    hydrolysis
  41. sequence of amino acids to form polypeptide chain
    primary structure
  42. primary chain forms spirals and sheets
    secondary structure
  43. secondary structure looks back on itself and bonds again final 3 dimestional structure. Examples Lactose, myoglobin, human growth hormone
    tertiary structure
  44. 2 or more chains in tertiary bonded together
    Ex. hemoglobin
    quaternary structure
  45. specific stimuli causes a specific response and the responce fixes(reverses) the stimulus
    negative feedback
  46. example of negative feedback
    hand on hot stove it pulls away
  47. specific stimuli causes a specific response that makes the stimulus even stronger
    postivie feedback
  48. example of positive feedback
    oxytocin- causes contractions during pregnancy
  49. state of abnormally high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid
    acidosis
  50. state of abnormally low hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid
    alkalosis
  51. when atoms combine with other atoms,energy relationships
    chemical bonds
  52. surrounds nucleus, each atom has up to 7 shell levels
    electron shell
  53. glucose + glucose =
    maltose
  54. glucose+fructose=
    sucrose
  55. glucose+galactose=
    lactose
  56. Nucleotide bases are
    adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil
  57. acid examples
    vinegar, wine, semem, apple juice
  58. base examples
    bleach, soap, blood
  59. atoms or molecules combine energy is absorbed for bond formation (a+b->ab)
    anabolic reaction
    synthesis reaction
  60. molecule is broken down chemical energy is released
    (ab->a +b) catabolic reaction
    decomposition reaction
  61. involves both synethesis and decompostion reactions switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made (ab+c->ac+b)
    exchange reaction
  62. the protein portion of an enzyme
    apoenzyme
  63. non protein substance associated with an activation an enzyme
    coenzyme
  64. energy requiring building phase of metabloism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances
    anabolism
  65. process in which living cells breakdown substances into simpler substances
    catabolism
  66. contains digestive enzymes used to digest bacteria, food and autophagy
    lysosome
  67. site of cellular respiration in which monosaccharides are broken down to form atp
    mitochondrion
  68. inner membrane forms folds
    cristae
  69. space between the folds
    matrix
  70. movement of the cell and movement of substances over the cell membrane
    cilia/flagellum
  71. divides the cell up into compartments
    Ex. fatty acids, phospholipid and steroid synthesis
    smoothe endoplasmic reticulum
  72. membranous network of sacs and tubles, cisternae largest sac, Er provides surface area for chemical reactions, and are covered with ribosomes
    rough endoplasmic reticulum
  73. site of translation of the mrna into a sequence of amino acids and of protein synthesis
    ribosomes
  74. organize the microtubules in the cell especially dduring cell division to form spindle fibers
    centrioles
  75. site for the formatino of rrna which is used to form ribosomes
    nucleolus
  76. area where dna is stored as chromatin material where dna replication and transcription take place
    nucleus
  77. separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm and regulates passage of substance to and from the nucleus
    nuclear envelope
  78. sequence of nucleotides will be used in replication to form a copy of the dna and translation to form mrna, trna,rrna
    dna
  79. packs and stroes proteins. lipids, and other complex structures in vesicles, lysosomes, and peroxisomes
    golgi body
  80. hydrophillic heads(water loving) hydrophobic(water hating) tails
    phospholipids
  81. for cell to cell recoginition found only on the outside of the cell membrane
    glycolipid
  82. embedded in the membrane to form receptors which attach to other compounds to change metabolism of the cell
    glycoprotein
  83. are not embedded in the lipid
    peripheral protein
  84. firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer
    integral protein
  85. 96% of our body is made from four elements
    carbon oxygen nitrogen hydrogen
  86. building blocks of elements
    atoms
  87. engery of motion
    kinetic energy
  88. stored energy Ex muscle
    potential energy
  89. anything that occupies space and has mass
    matter
  90. ability to do work and putting matter into action
    energy
  91. fundamental units of matter
    elements
  92. atomic structure electrons, protons, neutrons
    -,+,-
  93. two or more atoms held together by chemical bond
    molecule
  94. when two or more different kinds of atoms bond
    Ex; h2o
    compound
  95. substances composed of two or more components physically intermixed
    mixtures
  96. homogenous mixture of components that maybe gas liquids or solids
    solution
  97. dissolves another substance
    solvent
  98. what is being dissolved
    solute
  99. emulsions heterogeneous mixtures their composition is dissimilar in different areas of the mixture
    ex. jello gelatin can change from a liquid to a solid state
    colloids
  100. heterogeneous mixture with large often visible solutes that tend to settle out
    Ex blood, sand in water
    suspension
  101. chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another
    ionic bonds
  102. electrons that are shared
    covalent bonds
  103. charged particles
    ions
  104. shared electrons
    non polar covalent bonds
  105. unevenlly shared electrons
    polar covalent bonds
  106. special type of polar covalent bond , although it is a weak bond it is still a intramolecular bond
    hydrogen bond
  107. contains carbon usually large proteins sugars, lipids
    organic compound
  108. smaller simpler compounds, lack carbon
    ex. water, salts many acids and bases
    inorganic compound
  109. produce hydrogen ions when placed into a solution tastes sour
    acids
  110. they accept hydrogen ions from a solution
    bases
  111. below 7
    acid
  112. above 7
    base
  113. 7
    neutral
  114. an ionic compound that resist changes in pH
    buffers
  115. glucose fructose galactose dextrose, fruit
    monosaccharide
  116. must be broken down before it can be used, two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis
    disaccharide
  117. larger polymer, used to store energy
    polysaccharide
  118. what is stored in our liver
    glycogen
  119. insoluable in water, contains carbon hydrogen and oxygen
    lipids
  120. 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
    triglyceride
  121. single bonds solid at room temp
    ex. beef, cream cheese
    saturated lipid
  122. double or triple bond, can be liquid at room temp.
    ex. corn oil, olive oil, seasame oil
    unsaturated lipids
  123. modified triglycerides, builds cellular membranes
    phospholipids
  124. are fat soluble contain little oxygen
    Ex cholesterol
    steroids
  125. drive from arachidonic acid
    Prostaglaninds, and leukotriemenes
    eicosanoids
  126. store engery in the body, protection/insulate body organs. make up most of cell membranes. hormones such as progesterone and testosterone
    uses of lipids
  127. made up of 20 different amino acids
    protein
  128. acts as biological catalysts, increase the rate of chemical reactions
    enzymes
  129. the substance that will be affected by the enzyme
    substrate
  130. area on the enzyme to which the substrate binds
    active site
  131. the blueprints of life, provides instructions for every protein in the body directs growth and development contains genes
    dna
  132. single helix has ribose sugar, used for protein synthesis
    rna
  133. single nucleotide adenine used 3 phosphates used for energy transfer
    atp
  134. cells have 3 main regions
    nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane
  135. double phospholipid layer with embedded proteins, barrier for cell content
    plasma membrane
  136. allows substances to pass through
    permeable
  137. does not allow substances to pass through membrane
    impermeable
  138. allows some substances to pass through membrane while excluding others
    semipermeable
  139. impermeable to polymers
    glucose, ions, water, urea
  140. movement from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration bc of the random movement of molecules
    ex; kool aid dissolving in water , osmosis diffusion of water in and out of the cell
    diffusion
  141. movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a semipermeable membrane
    osmosis
  142. the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering their internal water volume
    tonicity
  143. solutions witht he same concentrations of nonpentrating solutes, water will move in and out of the cell no loss or gain
    isotonic solution
  144. solutions with a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than seen in a cell dehydration, too much salt in the cell
    hypertonic solution
  145. solutions that are more diluted cells plumps up, can cause lyse-cells to burst
    hypotonic solution
  146. the force pushing the water out due to the number of water molecules
    hydrostatic pressure
  147. force pulling the water in due to the number of solute particles
    osmotic pressure
  148. when hydrostatic pressure =osmotic pressure
    no net movement
  149. diffusing substance is attached to a lipid soluble membrane carrier protein or moves through a membrane channel high to low concentration
    facilitated
  150. requires carrier proteins that combine with the transported substances low to high concentration
    active transport
  151. taking something from the outside of the cell and brings it in
    endocytosis
  152. spits things out of the cell
    exocytosis
  153. dna copying
    replication
  154. cell organelles are in the
    cytoplasm
  155. we need nucleoplasm to
    reproduce
  156. dna is copied into the
    nucleolus
  157. rna
    transcription
  158. ex; if we get ijured builds cells up
    mitosis
  159. our sex cells
    meiosis
  160. each chromatid is... nucleoplasm being condensed(pushed down)
    spiral
  161. diploid make exact copies of themselves in
    mitosis
  162. haploid reproduce sexually with another cell
    meiosis
  163. cell drinking
    pinocytosis
  164. cell engulfs some relatively large or solid material such as a clump of bacteria debris
    phagocytosis
  165. asexual reproduction in which a single cell divides to form two identical cells called daughter cells
    mitosis
  166. sexual reproduction in which sex cells called gametes are formed
    meiosis
  167. rod shaped structure made up of dna and proteins that contain all the genetic information from a cell
    chromosomes
  168. time from when a cell is newly formed until it divides
    cell growth, dna is copied, growth and preparation for cell division
    interphase
  169. dna in chromosomes tighten and become more dense, centrioles of the cell separate and begin to build fibers between them (spinal fibers)
    prophase
  170. nuclear membrane disintegrates and chromosomes begin to ling up across center of cell
    metaphase
  171. chromatids of each chromosome split at centomere and begin to move to opposite poles of the cell, cell elongates, each cell has 1 set of chromatids
    anaphase
  172. chromsomes reach opposite poles and begind to recoil. nuclear membrane forms around chromosomes, cytoplasm starts to divide by cytokenesis
    telophase
  173. types of tissues
    epithelium, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue
  174. group of similar cells that usually line or cover a surface and usually produce secretion
    epithelial
  175. form endocrine (no ducts) and exocrine glands
    ex we secrete body fluids sweat tears
    epithelial
  176. disk shaped nuclei, flattened laterally, resemble titled floors. allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important. found in kidneys
    flat (squamous)
  177. spherical nucleus, stains very dark on the slide, single layer of cell , secretes and absorbs
    cuboidal
  178. one layer
    simple
  179. many layers
    stratified
  180. oval nucleus single layers of cells, closely packed cells, mostly associated with absorption and secretion
    columnar
  181. cells vary in height, cells rest on basement membrane, contains cilia and lines respiratory tract, if simple no cilia.
    pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  182. most widespread, free surface cells are squamous
    deeper layers are cuboidal or columnar
    stratified squamous epithelium
  183. rare in the body,
    stratified cuboidal and columnar
  184. usually had 2 layers of cuboidal cells
    stratified cuboidal
  185. only its apical layer of cells is columnar
    stratified columnar
  186. lines hollow urinary organs, stretch as it fills with urine, cells are basal layer are cuboidal or columnare
    transitional epithelium
  187. tissue that binds together and is used to support and protect and transport
    connective tissue
  188. framework surrounding the cells and are produced by the cells usually containing collagen
    matrix
  189. middle layer
    mesoderm
  190. outer layer
    ectoderm
  191. inside layer
    endoderm
  192. arise from mesencymes, branch off into other connective tissure, muscus connective tissure,
    embryonic
  193. substance in umbilical cord
    whartons jelly
  194. supports and binds other tissues holds body fluids defends against infection, has loose arrangement of fibers to allow passage of materials, found in subcutaneous layer
    areolar loose connective tissue
  195. similare to areolar in structure and function, adipocyte fat cells, adipocytes formed from fibroblasts and store triglycerides
    adipose loose connective tissure
  196. white fat
    mature adults
  197. brown fat made from mitochondrion bc they cant produce it
    infants
  198. cells fibroblast, collogen
    dense regular connective tissue
  199. collagen fibers are much thicker
    dense irregular
  200. elastic branched fibers and fibroblasts allows for stretching branch off each other. (ears, nose, cartilage, vertabrae)
    elastic
  201. covers ends of long bones connects ribs to sternum, ex, tip of nose
    hyaline cartilage
  202. has rows of chondrocytes with thick collagen fibers with stand heavy pressure (knee)
    fibrocartilage
  203. network of fine collagen strechability
    elastic cartilage
  204. supports and protects body structure oseous tissue matrix is ossified(hard)
    bone
  205. doesnt connect things or give mechanical support, classified as connective tissue bc it develops from meseclyme and consists of blood cells surrounded by blood plasma
    blood
  206. liquid matrix
    blood plasma
  207. tissue that is composed of protein arranged in fibrils and which contracts or shortens
    used for movement arises from mesoderm
    muscle tissue
  208. cells are called muscle fibers and have a cell membrane called
    sarcolemma
  209. striated under voluntary control, multinuclear, cylinder shaped
    skeletal
  210. nonstriated involuntary control, spinal shaped single nucleus
    smooth
  211. striated involuntary branched intercalated discs to bind cells together, usually single nucleus
    ex; heart
    cardiac
  212. tissue formed from cells called neurons that act to transfer and impluse, relate information from external to internal and respond, also correlated body functions and thoughts
    nervous tissue
  213. contains soma, dendrites, axon, they cannot carry on mitosis
    neuron
  214. the membrane is called, they do not contain mitotic apparatus
    neurolemma
  215. connects to the dendrites
    neuroglia
  216. the study of the structure of the human body
    anatomy
  217. they study of body functions
    physiology
  218. study of large body structure visible to the naked eye
    macroscopic
  219. study of all the structures in a particular region of the body
    regional
  220. the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
    ex;blood vessels
    surface
  221. considers the cells of the body
    cytology
  222. study of tissures
    histology
  223. superior, cranial
    above
  224. inferior caudal
    below
  225. ventral anterior
    in front of
  226. dorsal posterior
    behind
  227. medial
    in the middle of the body
  228. away from the midline
    lateral
  229. between the middle and the end
    intermediate
  230. close to the origin of the body
    proximal
  231. farther away from the origin
    distal
  232. superficial external
    at body surface
  233. deep internal
    away from the body surface
  234. compared with the patellar regions the femoral regions is
    proximal
  235. compared with the nasal region the orbital region is
    superior
  236. a body is sliced into equal right and left halves, this is an example of
    midsaggital
  237. the cranial cavity is not part of the
    ventral body cavity
  238. the type of body plane which will cut to form front and back halves
    coronal
  239. the level of organization in which connective, muscle and epithelium are organized to form a comples structure called
    organ
  240. how much more acidic is a pH of 3 than a pH of 6
    1000 times
  241. what is the synonym for anterior
    none
  242. a condtion exists where due to breathing difficulties the concentration of hydrogens in the blood increases. this is called
    acidosis
  243. the symbol for Na is
    sodium
  244. the three dimensional twisting of a chain of amina acids is called
    tertiary structure

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