Biology exam ch 3 review

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Biology exam ch 3 review
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2012-02-19 15:46:47
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  1. Biological molecules consist primarily of carbon bonded to
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
  2. functional groups
    gives the molecule its "job"
  3. organic molecules contain
    carbon
  4. Name some of the functional groups
    • hydroxyl group
    • carboxyl group
    • carbonyl group
  5. Hydrocarbons
    molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
    • Hydroxyl group

  6. -C=O
    • Carbonyl group

  7. -COOH
    • Carboxyl

    • amino group
  8. What is a polymer?
    It is a Giant molecule of living matter made up of monomers, a single subunit.
  9. What is an extremely biological molecule; refers specifically to proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipids, and complexes of these?
    Macromolecules
  10. Organic molecules having the same structural formula can exist indifferent forms called
    isomers
  11. Name of part of biological molecule
    polymer
  12. What are the four major biological macromolecules?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • 1. Cellular Structure - chromosome
    • 2. Polymer- DNA Strand
    • 3. Monomer- Nucleotide
  13. Label Parts 1-3
    • 1. Cellular Stucture- Intermediate filament
    • 2. Polymer- Polypeptide
    • 3. Monomer- Amino Acid
  14. Label parts 1-3
    • 1. Cellular Structure- starch grains in a chloroplast
    • 2. Polymer- Starch
    • 3. Monomer- Monosaccharide
  15. Label parts 1-3
    • 1. Cellular Structure- dipose cell with fat droplets
    • 2. Polymer- Triglyceride
    • 3. Monomer- Fatty acid
  16. Dehydration Synthesis
    the formation of large molecules by the removal of water
  17. Breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water is called
    hydrolysis
  18. The 3 types of Carbohydrates
    • 1. Monosaccharides
    • 2. Disaccharides
    • 3. Polysaccharides
  19. Characteristics of Monosaccharides:
    • -contain 3 and 6 carbon atoms,
    • -energy storage have 6 carbon and usually form rings
    • -most important 6-carbon monosaccharides are glucose
  20. characteristics of disaccharides:
    • -two linked monosaccharides
    • -serve as effeicitve reservoirs of glucose
  21. characteristics of polysaccharides:
    • monosaccharides joined through dehydration sythesis
    • used for energy strorage
    • used for support
    • forms starch, a storage used in plants
    • forms glycogen, a storage used in animals
    • form cellulose, a structural material for cells
  22. What are the 2 types of Polynucleotides?
    • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
    • RNA (Ribonucleic acid)
  23. Functions of DNA:
    • information storage
    • transmit info to next generation
  24. Nucleic acids are long polymers of repeating subunits called
    Nucleotides
  25. Nucelotides are composed of 3 components:
    • a specific sugar
    • a phosphate group
    • a nitrogenous group
  26. __________ is simply a chain of five carbon sugars linked together by phosphodiester bonds with a nitrogenous base protruding from each sugar.
    Nucleic Acid
  27. Characeristics of DNA:
    • 2 strands of polynucleotides that remain together because of hydrogen bonds
    • forms a double helix structure
    • compleentary strands: nitrogenous bases pair in a set way
    • genetic information carried in the sequence of nucleotides
  28. Characteristics of RNA:
    • single polynucleotide strand
    • sugar is ribose
    • base is uracil instead of thymine
  29. functions of RNA:
    • read the genetic information in DNA
    • Direct protein synthesis
  30. Major types of proteins
    • support
    • storage
    • motion
    • transport
    • enzymes
    • defense
    • regulation
  31. Proteins are polymers of ___________.
    amino acids
  32. Characterized of Amino Acids:
    • 20 different kinds
    • amino group ()
    • carboxyl group (-COOH)
    • link via dehydration
  33. An amino acid consist of a central carbon atom surrounded by a
    • amino group
    • single hydrogen
    • carboxyl group
    • variable R GROUP
  34. Amino acids can be classified as:
    • nonpolar and polar
    • charged (+ or -)
    • special function - stability and folding
    • aromatic - ring structures
  35. Protein Shapes
    • primary structure
    • secondary structure
    • tertiary structure
    • quaternary structure
  36. Primary structure =
    sequence of amino acids
  37. secondary structure =
    interaction of R-groups in the protein backbone.
  38. tertiary structure =
    final folded shape of the polypeptde chain, creating a 3D shape\

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