Biology exam ch 3 review

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  1. Biological molecules consist primarily of carbon bonded to
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
  2. functional groups
    gives the molecule its "job"
  3. organic molecules contain
    carbon
  4. Name some of the functional groups
    • hydroxyl group
    • carboxyl group
    • carbonyl group
  5. Hydrocarbons
    molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
  6. Image Upload
    • Hydroxyl group
    • Image Upload
  7. Image Upload
    -C=O
    • Carbonyl group
    • Image Upload
  8. Image Upload
    -COOH
    • Carboxyl
    • Image Upload
  9. Image Upload
    Image Upload
    • amino group
    • Image Upload
  10. What is a polymer?
    It is a Giant molecule of living matter made up of monomers, a single subunit.
  11. What is an extremely biological molecule; refers specifically to proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipids, and complexes of these?
    Macromolecules
  12. Organic molecules having the same structural formula can exist indifferent forms called
    isomers
  13. Name of part of biological molecule
    Image Upload
    polymer
  14. What are the four major biological macromolecules?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
  15. Image Upload
    • 1. Cellular Structure - chromosome
    • 2. Polymer- DNA Strand
    • 3. Monomer- Nucleotide
  16. Label Parts 1-3
    Image Upload
    • 1. Cellular Stucture- Intermediate filament
    • 2. Polymer- Polypeptide
    • 3. Monomer- Amino Acid
  17. Label parts 1-3
    Image Upload
    • 1. Cellular Structure- starch grains in a chloroplast
    • 2. Polymer- Starch
    • 3. Monomer- Monosaccharide
  18. Label parts 1-3
    Image Upload
    • 1. Cellular Structure- dipose cell with fat droplets
    • 2. Polymer- Triglyceride
    • 3. Monomer- Fatty acid
  19. Dehydration Synthesis
    the formation of large molecules by the removal of water
  20. Breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water is called
    hydrolysis
  21. The 3 types of Carbohydrates
    • 1. Monosaccharides
    • 2. Disaccharides
    • 3. Polysaccharides
  22. Characteristics of Monosaccharides:
    • -contain 3 and 6 carbon atoms,
    • -energy storage have 6 carbon and usually form rings
    • -most important 6-carbon monosaccharides are glucose
  23. characteristics of disaccharides:
    • -two linked monosaccharides
    • -serve as effeicitve reservoirs of glucose
  24. characteristics of polysaccharides:
    • monosaccharides joined through dehydration sythesis
    • used for energy strorage
    • used for support
    • forms starch, a storage used in plants
    • forms glycogen, a storage used in animals
    • form cellulose, a structural material for cells
  25. What are the 2 types of Polynucleotides?
    • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
    • RNA (Ribonucleic acid)
  26. Functions of DNA:
    • information storage
    • transmit info to next generation
  27. Nucleic acids are long polymers of repeating subunits called
    Nucleotides
  28. Nucelotides are composed of 3 components:
    • a specific sugar
    • a phosphate group
    • a nitrogenous group
  29. __________ is simply a chain of five carbon sugars linked together by phosphodiester bonds with a nitrogenous base protruding from each sugar.
    Nucleic Acid
  30. Characeristics of DNA:
    • 2 strands of polynucleotides that remain together because of hydrogen bonds
    • forms a double helix structure
    • compleentary strands: nitrogenous bases pair in a set way
    • genetic information carried in the sequence of nucleotides
  31. Characteristics of RNA:
    • single polynucleotide strand
    • sugar is ribose
    • base is uracil instead of thymine
  32. functions of RNA:
    • read the genetic information in DNA
    • Direct protein synthesis
  33. Major types of proteins
    • support
    • storage
    • motion
    • transport
    • enzymes
    • defense
    • regulation
  34. Proteins are polymers of ___________.
    amino acids
  35. Characterized of Amino Acids:
    • 20 different kinds
    • amino group (Image Upload)
    • carboxyl group (-COOH)
    • link via dehydration
  36. An amino acid consist of a central carbon atom surrounded by a
    • amino group
    • single hydrogen
    • carboxyl group
    • variable R GROUP
  37. Amino acids can be classified as:
    • nonpolar and polar
    • charged (+ or -)
    • special function - stability and folding
    • aromatic - ring structures
  38. Protein Shapes
    • primary structure
    • secondary structure
    • tertiary structure
    • quaternary structure
  39. Primary structure =
    sequence of amino acids
  40. secondary structure =
    interaction of R-groups in the protein backbone.
  41. tertiary structure =
    final folded shape of the polypeptde chain, creating a 3D shape\

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Filename:
Biology exam ch 3 review
Updated:
2012-02-19 21:42:04
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