PR exam 1
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What are the four steps that constitute public relations process?
1. research 2.planning 3. communication. 4. evaluation.
What are the differences between public relations, marketing, and advertising
advertising: ontrolled media to influence actions of targeted public.
marketing: process of researching, creating, refining, and promoting a product/service and distributing to target consumers.
pr: managment of relationships between an org&pub.
How is public relations defined?
an organizations value-driven efforts to communicate w its publics in order to achieve organizational goals.
What does your textbook say about the essential elements of public relations?
- 1. PR is a managment function-yes.
- 2. PR involves two-way communcation- not always.
- 3. PR is a planned activity-yes but not always.
- 4. PR is reasearch-based social science: yes.
- 5. PR is socially responsible: not always
What are the 4 models of public relations according to Grunig & Hunt?
- -press agentry/publicity model (favorable media coverage)
- -public information model (accurate info)
- -two way asymmetrical model (research is used to influence publics)
- -two way symmetrical model (conflict res. and mutual u/s)
Understand the different duties of PR managers and PR technicians
- MANAGERS-solve problems, advise organizational leaders, make policy decisions, and take responsibility for success or failure. found in org. that operate in rapidly changing enciroments ansd encourage employee input.
- TECHNICIANS-rarely advise others within org. prepare communications that help execute the pr policies created bt others. enviroment is stable and predictable.
Are there signs of discrimination or inequality in the field of public relations?
men make more $$$!
What are the trends leading to the development of modern public relations?
- -growth of insitutions
- -expansion of democracy
- -improvement in comm.
- -growth of advocacy
- -search for consenus
1. to fullfill their values, org. need resources like raw materials and people to work for the org.2. some key resources not controlled by org.3. acquire key resources, organizations build productive relationships with the publics that control resources.
resource dependency Theory
What do we have to know about each public?
- 1. how much influence of public to achieve goals.
- 2. publics opinion and issue in question.
- 3. who are the opinion leaders/decision makers of pub.
- 4. demographic/psychological profile of public.
arena in which alternative political activity and alternative PR efforts may grow.
What are the two main PR strategies that are typically used to reduce the legitimacy gap
1. change public excpectations EX: oil companies explain they are not making that much $$.
2. change symbolism of corp to meet public expectations: EX: we are making money but look what we're doing with it, investing it!"
what kinds of PR strategies Ogilvy & Mather recommended to Nestle
carnation care option "look we are heling hiv-positive children" (change symbolism)
ethics vs ethic codes
values in action identifying your values and acting on them vs guidelines (international codes, societal codes, professional codes, organizational codes, personal codes)
a positive force for change to help improve quality of ppl's lives/org. acting as a good citizen.
Corporate social responsibility
people w similar characteristics
most eithical approach.
dialogue leads to better relationship management between the org. and its publics.
Equal partnerships between orgs and publics.
emphasize mutual understanding between two.
Two-way symmetrical model
ETHICS ARE VALUES IN...?
aggregate result of an individual opinion on public matters.
expresses, adjusted and compromised to collective determination of course of action.
a consensus, emerges over time, from all of the expressed views that cluester around an issue/debate.
has an interest in an org. or issue that potentially involves the org.
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