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2012-02-19 22:14:58
SSES 319 exam head injuries

first exam sports med
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  1. Body Systems
    • Integumentary
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproductive
  2. Integumentary system
    • The skin
    • Has lots of nerves, cooling and warming system
  3. Nervous system
    Brain and spinal cord, everything to control you
  4. Endocrine
    Hormone system (testosterone, estrogen, etc)
  5. Lymphatic
    Cerebral spinal fluid (white blood cells)
  6. Lacerations
    Cuts in/on skin
  7. Abrasions
    Road burn and such
  8. Joints
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
    • Synovial
    • Bursa
  9. Fibrous
    Rigidly joined (no movement)
  10. Cartilaginous
    Limited motion, plate of hyline cartilage or fibrocartilaginous
  11. Synovial
    • Covered with hyline carilage
    • Lubricated with synovial fluid
    • Enclosed in a capsule
    • i.e. knee and shoulder
  12. Bursa
    Pockets that soften joints
  13. Axial Skeleton
    Head, ribs and hip--everything in the middle
  14. Appenicular skeleton
    Arms and legs--all appendages
  15. Vertebral column
    • Cervical (7)
    • Thoracic (12)
    • Lumbar (5)
  16. Kyphosis
    Hunched back, pronounced curve at the top of spine
  17. Sclerosis
    An S curve along the sagital plane
  18. Lordosis
    Curve at the bottom of spine, makes the butt pronounced
  19. Forward Head
    Slouching, head pushed forward
  20. Flat back
    No curves
  21. Swayback
    Superior spine juts backwards
  22. Cervical conditions
    • Axial load
    • Flexion
    • Hyperextension
    • Rotation and flexion
    • Rotation and hyperextension
    • Lateral flexion
  23. Transverse Ligament
    Ligament that holds the Atlas and Axis together
  24. Transverse Process
    Bone that pokes out of the spinal vertebrae along the transverse plane
  25. Spinous Process
    Bone that pokes out of the spinal vertebrae dorsally
  26. Sacrum
    • Located in the lumbar region within the pelvic bone. Multiple vertebrae fused together. Coccyx at the tip
    • Example of SI (sacroiliac) joint
  27. Cervical curve
    Similar to lordosis, occurs in lower spine naturally
  28. Thoracic curve
    Similar to kyphosis, occurs naturally in upper spine
  29. Cervical Spine and Injury Prevention
    • Must have full range of motion
    • Strengthen neck with isometric contractions
    • Athletes should learn the correct technique of tackle
  30. Cervical Fractures
    • Cause: axial load with some cervical flexion, rotation can dislocate
    • Signs: neck point tenderness, cervical muscle spasm, restricted motion
    • Care: treat like an unconscious athlete
  31. Cervical Dislocation
    • Cause: result of violent flexion and rotation of the head
    • Signs: pain, numbness, weakness or paralysis
    • Care: extreme care to be useďż˝can cause spinal cord injury
  32. Acute Strains of Neck and Upper Back
    • Cause: sudden turn of the head, forced flexion, extension or rotation
    • Signs: localized pain and point tenderness
    • Care: RICE and application of cervical collar
  33. Cervical Sprain
    • Whiplash
    • Cause: snapping of the head and neck
    • Care: rest and ice
  34. Isometric
    Strengthening without motion
  35. Isotonic
    Strengthening with motion
  36. Acute Torticollis
    • Cause: sleeping on stomach, pain on one side of neck
    • Signs: restricted ROM and tenderness
    • Care: gradual strengthening, heat and cold treatments
  37. Brachial Plexus Injury
    • Pinched Nerve
    • Cause: result of stretching or compression of brachial plexus
    • Signs: burning sensation, numbness, and tingling
    • Care: strengthening and stretching program, padding to reduce ROM during impact
  38. Spodylolisis vs. Spodylolisthesis
    • 1. degeneration of the vertebrae due to congenital weakness, stress fracture
    • 2. slipping of a vertebrae above or below another, associated with spodylolisis.
    • Signs:pain and persistent aching, low back stiffness with increased pain after activity, need to change position or pop back
    • Care: bracing and reduced motion for 2-3 days, strengthening for control and stabilization, core strengthening
  39. Primary Survey
    • Performed to determine presence of life threatening condition: airway, breathing, circulation, shock and severe bleeding
    • Used to correct life threatening condition
    • 911 called
  40. Secondary Survey
    • Life threatening condition ruled out, gather specific information about injury
    • Assess vital signs and perform more detailed evaluation of conditions
  41. Venous Bleeding
    Dark red with continuous flow
  42. Capillary
    Exudes from tissue and is reddish
  43. Arterial
    Flows in spurts and is bright red
  44. Controlling bleeding
    Direct pressure, elevation, and pressure points
  45. Managing shock
    • Signs: moist, pale, cold skin; weak rapid pulse, decreased blood pressure, shallow breathing, irritability or excitement, thirst
    • Care: maintain core temp, elevate feet, keep athlete calm, limit onlookers, reassure athlete
  46. On-field assessment
    • Determine injury severity and transportation from field
    • Use logical process to evaluate trauma extent
    • Know mechanism of injury and major signs and symptoms are critical
  47. Off-field assessment
    • Performed by athletic trainer or physician once removed from site of injury
    • 4 segments: history, observation, physical examination, special tests
  48. PRICE
    • Protection
    • Rest
    • Ice
    • Compression
    • Elevation
  49. Posttraumatic amnesia
    • Inability of athlete to recall events since injury
    • Anterograde and retrograde amnesia
  50. Anterograde amnesia
    Loss of memory for events immediately following a trauma
  51. Retrograde amnesia
    Loss of memory for events immediately preceding a trauma
  52. Concussions
    • Cause: direct blow, acceleration and deceleration of forces producing shaking of brain
    • Signs: altered levels of consciousness, headaches, tinnitus, nausea, irritability, confusion, disorientation, dizziness, amnesia
    • Tests: palpation neck and skull, neurologic exam, eye function, balance test, coordination, cognitive
    • Care: any loss of consciousness-ATC removes from play, objective measures should be used to determine readiness to play, cervical spine injury suspected
  53. Post-concussion syndrome
    • Cause: condition that occurs following a concussion
    • Signs: persistent headaches, impaired memory, lack of concentration, anxiety and irritability, fatigue, depression
    • Care: return athlete to play when all symptoms are gone
  54. Secondary Impact Syndrome
    • Cause: rapid swelling and herniation of brain after second head injury, impact can be minimal but damage large, disrupts autoregulatory system leading to swelling, increasing intracranial pressure
    • Signs: athlete looks stunned, within 15s condition degrades rapidly, dilated pupils, loss of eye movement, LOC leading to coma, respiratory failure
    • Care: life-threatening injury that must be addressed within 5min. with life saving measures performed at an emergency facility
  55. Epidural Hematoma
    • Cause: blow to the head or skull fracture which tear meningeal arteries, blood pressure and accumulation and creation of hematoma occur rapidly.
    • Signs: LOC followed by period of lucidity, showing few signs and symptoms of serious injury, gradual progression of signs and symptoms: dizziness, head pains, nausea, dilation of one pupil, convulsion
    • Care: requires urgent neurological surgery, must relieve pressure, CT scan
  56. Subdural Hematoma
    • Cause: result of acceleration or deceleration of forces that tear vessels that bridge duramater and brain, venous bleeding
    • Signs: LOC, dilation of one pupil, headaches, dizziness, nausea and sleepiness
    • Care: immediate medical attention, CT and MRI
  57. Cerebrum Control
    Memory and sensory impulses
  58. Cerebellum control
    Skeletal and muscle movement
  59. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
    Degenerative brain disease that results in behaviors similar to Alzheimer's disease, clear environmental cause not genetic, preventable form of dementia
  60. Types of Fracture
    • Greenstick
    • Transverse
    • Oblique
    • Spiral
    • Linear
    • Comminuted
  61. Greenstick
    Incomplete break that usually occurs in the convex bone surface
  62. Transverse
    Occur in a straight line at 90 degrees to the bone shaft
  63. Oblique
    Similar to spiral, occur when sudden twisting or torsion occurs while the other end is stable
  64. Spiral
    Has an S shaped separation, are common in football and skiing, occur when the foot is planted and the body rotates. Cleaner break than oblique
  65. Linear
    The bone splits along its length
  66. Comminuted
    Consists of three or more fragments at the fracture site
  67. Stress Fractures
    Caused by overuse or chronic stress to the bone
  68. Ligament Sprain
    • Grade 1: stretching and separation of the ligamentous fibers may occur
    • Grade 2: some tearing and separation
    • Grade 3: complete tear
  69. Muscle Strains
    • Strain to tendons
    • Grade 1: some muscle fibers have been stretched or torn
    • Grade 2: a number of muscle fibers have been torn
    • Grade 3: a complete rupture of the muscle tendon from the bone or where the muscle becomes a tendon