KIN 2509 Ch 4

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dfusel2
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136394
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KIN 2509 Ch 4
Updated:
2012-02-19 22:50:07
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body structure
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Ch 4 Body Structure
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  1. Structural Organization
    • Cellular Level
    • Tissue Level
    • Organ Level
    • System & Organism Level
  2. cytology
    the study of cells
  3. cytologist
    specializes in cytology
  4. Cell Structures
    • cell membrane
    • nucleus
    • chromatin
    • nuclear membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • ribosomes
    • mitochondria
    • lysosomes
    • Golgi apparatus
    • cilia
  5. tissue types
    • muscle tissue
    • connective tissue
    • nervous tissue
    • epithelial tissue
  6. anterior (ventral)
    front of the body; toward the front
  7. deep
    away from the surface
  8. distal
    farther from the point of attachment to the trunk or a structure
  9. external
    outside, exterior to
  10. inferior (caudal)
    below; towards the tail
  11. internal
    within; interior to
  12. lateral
    pertaining to the side; toward the side
  13. medial
    pertaining to the middle; toward the midline
  14. posterior (dorsal)
    back of the body; near the back
  15. proximal
    near the point of attachment to the trunk or a structure
  16. parietal
    pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity
  17. superficial
    toward or on the surface
  18. superior (cephalic, cranial)
    above; toward the head
  19. visceral
    pertaining to the covering of an organ
  20. knee-chest position
    • the patient is assisted into a kneeling position with the buttocks elevated and the head & chest on the table
    • arms are extended above the head and flexed at the elbow
    • the rectum is examined in the position (sigmoid colon)
    • both men & women
  21. lithotomy position
    • the patient is supine (lying on the back), the legs are sharply flexed at the knees, the feet are placed in stirrups
    • position of choice for the vaginal examination & the Pap smear procedure
    • position preferred when a vaginal speculum is used to perform a pelvic examination
  22. dorsal recumbent position
    • the patient is supine, but the legs are sharply flexed at the knees & the feet are on the table
    • in this position, the vagina & rectum can be examined in the woman, and the rectum in the man
  23. Sim position
    • side-lying position
    • the patient is instructed to lie on the left side with the left arm behind the body & the right arm forward, flexed at the elbow
    • both legs are flexed at the knee, but the right leg is sharply flexed and positioned next to the left leg, which is slightly flexed
    • man - rectum
    • woman - rectum & vagina
    • position used to administer an enema
  24. prone position
    • the patient is lying flat on the abdomen with the head turned slightly to the side
    • the arms can be positioned above the head and extended or alongside the body
    • the back, spine, and lower extremities can be examined in this position
  25. Fowler position
    • the patient is in a semi-sitting position with the head of the examination table tilted to produce a 45-60 degree angle
    • knees may or may not be bent
    • used for patients with dyspneic (difficult breathing) conditions because it promotes lung expansion
  26. supine position
    • the patient is lying flat on the back with arms at the sides or above the head
    • facilitates examination of the chest, heart, abdomen, and extremities
    • the head & neck can be examined in this position as well as certain neurologic reflex testing
  27. midsagittal (median) plane
    a vertical plane that passes through the midline of the body & divides the body or organ into equal right and left sides
  28. sagittal plane
    a plane that is parallel to a midsagittal plane that divides the body or organ into unequal right & left sides
  29. frontal (coronal) plane
    a plane from side to side that separates the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
  30. transverse (horizontal) plane
    a plane that separates the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
  31. adip/o
    fat
  32. adipoid
    resembling fat
  33. lip/o
    fat
  34. lipectomy
    excision of fatty tissue
  35. cyt/o
    cell
  36. chondr/o
    cartilage
  37. chondroma
    tumor composed of cartilage
  38. fibr/o
    fiber, fibrous tissue
  39. fibroblast
    any cell from which connective tissue develops
  40. hist/o
    tissue
  41. my/o
    muscle
  42. sarc/o
    flesh (connective tissue)
  43. abdomin/o
    abdomen
  44. cervic/o
    neck, cervix uteri (neck of the uterus)
  45. coccyg/o
    coccyx (tailbone)
  46. crani/o
    cranium, skull
  47. ili/o
    ilium (lateral flaring portion of hip bone)
  48. inguin/o
    groin
  49. lumb/o
    loins (lower back)
  50. pelv/i
    pelvis
  51. sacr/o
    sacrum
  52. spin/o
    spine
  53. thorac/o
    chest
  54. umbilic/o
    umbilicus, navel
  55. viscer/o
    internal organs
  56. vertebr/o
    vertebrae (backbone)
  57. anter/o
    anterior, front
  58. caud/o
    tail
  59. cephal/o
    head
  60. dist/o
    far, farthest
  61. dors/o
    back (of the body)
  62. later/o
    side, to one side
  63. medi/o
    middle
  64. poster/o
    back (of the body), behind, posterior
  65. proxim/o
    near, nearest
  66. ventr/o
    belly, belly side
  67. ab-
    from, away from
  68. ad-
    toward
  69. epi-
    above, upon
  70. hypo-
    under, below
  71. infra-
    under, below
  72. inter-
    between
  73. body cavity
    hollow space within the body that contains internal organs, also known as viscera
  74. ventral cavities
    thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
  75. dorsal cavities
    cranial & spinal cavities
  76. four quadrants
    • right upper quadrant
    • right lower quadrant
    • left upper quadrant
    • right upper quadrant
  77. nice regions
    • hypochondriac (R & L)
    • epigastric
    • lumbar (R & L)
    • umbilical
    • inguinal (R & L)
    • hypogastric
  78. RUQ organs
    • right lobe of liver
    • gallbladder
    • part of the pancreas
    • part of the small & large intestines
  79. RLQ organs
    • part of small & large intestines
    • appendix
    • right ovary
    • right fallopian tubes
    • right ureter
  80. LUQ organs
    • left lobe of the liver
    • stomach
    • spleen
    • part of the pancreas
    • part of the large & small intestines
  81. LLQ organs
    • part of the small & large intestines
    • left ovary
    • left fallopian tubes
    • left ureter
  82. AP
    anteroposterior
  83. C1, C2, etc.
    • first cervical vertebra
    • second cervical vertebra
    • etc.
  84. CV
    cardiovascular
  85. GI
    gastrointestinal
  86. GU
    genitourinary
  87. lat
    lateral
  88. L1, L2, etc.
    • first lumbar vertebra
    • second lumbar vertebra
    • etc.
  89. LLQ
    left lower quadrant
  90. LUQ
    left upper quadrant
  91. MS
    • musculoskeletal
    • multiple sclerosis
    • mental status
    • morphine sulfate
  92. RLQ
    right lower quadrant
  93. RUQ
    right upper quadrant
  94. S1, S2, etc.
    • first sacral vertebra
    • second sacral vertebra
    • etc.
  95. T1, T2, etc.
    • first thoracic vertebra
    • second thoracic vertebra
    • etc.
  96. spinal column
    • 7 cervical vertebra
    • 12 thoracic vertebra
    • 5 lumbar vertebra
    • 5 sacral vertebra
    • 4 coccygeal vertebra

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