Mineralogy

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Author:
ramckee
ID:
1364
Filename:
Mineralogy
Updated:
2009-11-24 02:21:34
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Geology Mineralogy
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Description:
Minerals, chemical formulae, etc.
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  1. Quartz
    • SiO2
  2. Tridymite
    • SiO2
    • Hi T
    • xls, scales or in cavities in acidic vol. rx
    • 870-1470 C
  3. Cristobalite
    • SiO2
    • Hi T
    • xls, scales or in cavities in acidic vol. rx
    • stable above 1470 C
  4. Feldspars
    • KAlSi3O8 <---ss---> NaAlSi3O8 <---ss---> CaAl2Si2O8
    • Sanidine
    • Orthoclase
    • Microcline
    • Albite ---to--- Anorthite
  5. Sanidine
    • KAlSi3O8
    • Hi T
    • in felsic volcanic rx
    • in solid solution with Albite
  6. Orthoclase
    • KAlSi3O8
  7. Microcline
    • KAlSi3O8
    • K rich
    • slow cooling of orthoclase
    • colorless
  8. Plagioclase
    Albite and Anorthite solid solution

    • Albite NaAlSi3O8
    • Oligoclase
    • Andesine Ca, Al --> Na, Si
    • Labradorite
    • Bytownite
    • Anorthite CaAl2Si2O8
  9. Albite
    • NaAlSi3O8
    • 0 - 10% Ca, Al
  10. Oligoclase
    • 10 - 30% Anorthite Ca, Al
    • Mostly Albite Na, Si
    • often accompanies orthoclase
  11. Andesine
    • 30 - 50% Anorthite
    • mod to half Ca, Al rich
  12. Labradorite
    • 50 - 70% Anorthite
    • half to more than Ca, Al rich
  13. Bytownite
    70 - 90% Anorthite

    mostly Ca, Al rich
  14. Anorthite
    • CaAl2Si2O8
    • all the Na, and some Si replaced
    • complete transfer from Albite
    • 90-100%
  15. Feldspathoids
    • lacking Si & O
    • Nephaline NaAlSiO4
    • Leucite KAlSi2O6
  16. Nephaline
    • Feldspathoid
    • NaAlSiO4
  17. Leucite
    • Feldspathoid
    • KAlSi2O6
  18. Olivines
    • X2SiO4
    • Forsterite X = Mg
    • Fayalite X = Fe
    • solid solution
    • nesosilicate - isolated silica tetrahedra
  19. Forsterite
    • Mg2SiO4
    • For + qtz -> Enst (orthopyx.)
    • Mg2SiO4 + SiO2 -> 2 MgSiO3
  20. Fayalite
    • Fe2SiO4
    • Fe stabilizes the olivine + qtz pair
    • and doesn't react like Fors
  21. Orthopyroxene
    • (Mg,Fe)SiO3
    • Orthorhombic
    • solid solution of Enstatite (Mg) and Ferrosilite (Fe)
    • Hypersthene is the general name for the common mixture of the two minerals.
  22. Hypersthene
    • MgSiO3 <----ss----> FeSiO3
    • mixture of Enstatite and Ferrosilite
    • commonly confused with Hbl, but Hyp is harder
    • opx
  23. Enstatite
    • MgSiO3
    • Orthopyroxene
    • ss with Ferrosilite
  24. Ferrosilite
    • FeSiO3
    • othopyroxene
    • ss with Enstatite
  25. Clinopyroxenes
    • ABSi2O6 or X2Si2O6
    • Diopside
    • Hedenbergite
    • Augite
    • Pigeonite
    • Wollastonite [CaSiO3]
    • (all monoclinic)
  26. Pyroxene
    • XY(Si,Al)2O6
    • single chain inosilicate
  27. Diopside
    • CaMgSi2O6
    • cpx
  28. Hedenbergite
    • CaFeSi2O6
    • cpx
  29. Augite
    • (Ca,Mg,Fe)2Si2O6
    • two cleavages meeting near 90o
    • cpx
  30. Pigeonite
    • (Mg,Fe,Ca)2Si2O6
    • cpx
  31. Wollastonite
    • CaSiO3
    • cpx
  32. Amphibole
    • RSi8O22 (OH,F)2
    • doublechain inosilicate
  33. Tremolite
    • Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH,F)2
    • Amph
  34. Actinolite
    • Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH,F)2
    • Amph
  35. Hornblende
    • (Ca,Na)2-3(Mg,Fe,Al)5Si6(Al,Si)2O22(OH,F)2
    • Amph
  36. Mica
    • Phylosilicate
    • X2Y4–6Z8O20(OH,F)4
    • Biotite
    • Muscovite
  37. Biotite
    • K(Mg,Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2 (Mg,Fe)3 = Al2
    • Mica
  38. Muscovite
    • KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
    • Mica
  39. Garnet
    • X3Al2Si3O12
    • Grossular
    • Pyrope
    • Almandine
    • nesosilicate
  40. Gossular
    • Ca3Al2Si3O12
    • Garnet
  41. Pyrope
    • Mg3Al2Si3O12
    • Garnet
  42. Almandine
    • Ca3Al2Si3O12
    • Garnet
  43. Andalusite
    • Al2SiO5
    • Al Nesosilicate
    • polymorph to Ky and Sill
  44. Kyanite
    • Al2SiO5
    • Al Nesosilicate
    • polymorph to And and Sill
  45. Sillimanite
    • Al2SiO5
    • Al Nesosilicate
    • polymorph to Ky and And
  46. Carbonate
    • Calcite
    • Dolomite
  47. Calcite
    CaCO3
  48. Dolomite
    (Ca,Mg)CO3
  49. Apatite
    • Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl)2
    • Phosphate mineral
  50. Zircon
    • ZrSiO4
    • Nesosilicate
  51. Sphene
    • CaTiSiO5
    • aka Titanite
  52. Hematite
    • Fe2O3
    • oxide
  53. Magnetite
    • Fe2O4
    • oxide

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