review flash cards for first exam of TV Studio Production
The particular approach to a story—its central theme.
All personnel, equipment, and facilities needed for a production, as well as budgets, schedules, and the various production phases.
Production activities that take place away from the studio.
The use of two or more cameras to capture a scene simultaneously from different points of view. Each camera’s output can be recorded sepa- rately (iso configuration) and/or fed into a switcher for instantaneous editing.
Any production activity that occurs after the production. Usually refers to video editing and/or audio sweetening.
The preparation of all production details.
The message actually perceived by the viewer in the process of watching a video program.
The actual activities in which an event is recorded and/or televised.
Moving from the idea to the program objective and then backing up to the specific medium requirements to achieve the program objective.
The desired effect of the program on the viewer.
All the video is captured by a single camera or camcorder for postproduction editing. Similar to the traditional film approach. Also called film-style.
Production activities that take place in the studio
The media convergence concerns the overlapping functions of digital cinema and video production and of studio and field production. Multicamera productions are sometimes instantaneously edited through switching and sometimes recorded as iso sources for postproduction. Single-camera productions usually resemble film production in shotacquisition and postproduction editing.
Usually a three-person team consisting of the talent, a camcorder operator, and a utility person who handles lighting, audio, and/or video recording, and, if necessary, the microwave transmission back to the studio.
A calendar that shows the preproduction, production, and postproduction dates and who is doing what, when, and where. See also time line.
nontechnical production personnel
People concerned primarily with nontechnical production matters that lead from the basic idea to the final screen image. In- cludes producers, directors, and talent.
Comprises a variety of nontechnical and technical people, such as producer and various assistants (associate producer and production assistant), director and assistant director, and talent and production crew. In charge: director.
Normally consists of the director, a video editor, and, for complex productions, a sound designer who remixes the sound track.
technical production personnel
People who operate the production equipment, including camera operators, floor persons, and video and audio engineers.
Comprises the people who plan the production. Normally includes the producer, writer, director, art director, and technical director. Large productions may include a composer and a choreographer. In charge: producer.
a breakdown of timeblocks for various activities on actual production day, such as crew call, set up and camera rehearsal
Iris opening of a lens; usually measured in ƒ-stops.
Optical device within the camera that splits the white light into the three additive primary light colors: red, green, and blue.
a portable camera with a video recorder built into it
The camera and the associated electronic equipment, consisting of the power supply, sync generator, and camera control unit.
camera control unit (CCU)
Equipment, separate from the actual camera, that allows the video operator to adjust the color and brightness balance before and during the production.
charge coupled device (CCD)
A solid-state imaging device that translates the optical image into a video signal. Also called chip.
Contains the RGB video signals or some combination thereof. Also called color, or C, channel.
Highly portable, high-end self-contained camera for electronic field production.
A lens that permits a relatively great amount of light to pass through at its largest aperture (lowest ƒ-stop number). Can be used in low-light conditions.
With the lens set at infinity, the distance from the iris to the plane where the picture is in focus. Normally measured in millimeters or inches.
Thescaleonthelens,indicatingtheaperture. The larger the ƒ-stop number, the smaller the aperture; the smaller the ƒ-stop number, the larger the aperture.
Adjustable lens-opening mechanism. Also called lens diaphragm.
Contains the black-and-white part of a video signal. It is mainly responsible for the sharpness of the picture. Also called luma, or Y, channel.
A lens that permits a relatively small amount of light to pass through (relatively high ƒ-stop number at its largest aperture). Requires higher light levels for optimal pictures.
A small video screen or flat-panel display on a camera that shows the black-and-white or color picture the camera generates. The flat-panel displays are also called monitors.
Variable-focal-length lens. All video cameras are equipped with a zoom lens.
How much the focal length can be changed from a wide shot to a close-up during a zoom. The zoom range is stated as a ratio, such as 20:1. Also called zoom ratio.
In a video camera, converts the optical image into electric energy—the video signal. Also called pickup device or sensor.
To move the camera in a slightly curved dolly or truck.
calibrate the zoom lens
First, focus on the farthest point on the z-axis that should be in focus, then zoom out
To tilt the camera sideways.
To move the boom of the camera crane up or down. Also called boom.
To move the camera toward (dolly in) or away from (dolly out) the object.
A small camera crane that can be operated by the cameraperson.
A device that connects the camera to its support. Also called pan-and-tilt head.
To turn the camera horizontally.
To move the camera up or down using a studio pedestal.
A camera control that reduces the blurring of bright, fast-moving objects. The higher the shutter speed, the less blurring occurs but the more light is needed.
A heavy camera dolly that permits raising and lowering the camera while on the air.
A camera mount that allows the operator to walk and run, with the camera remaining steady.
To point the camera up or down.
To move the boom with the camera from left to right or from right to left.
A three-legged camera mount. Also called sticks.
To move the camera laterally by means of a mobile camera mount. Also called track.
The adjustments of the color circuits in the camera to produce white color in lighting of various color temperatures (relative reddishness or bluishness of white light).
To change the focal length of the lens through the use of a zoom control while the camera remains stationary.
The ratio of the width of the television screen to its height. In STV (standard television), it is 4 × 3 (4 units wide by 3 units high); for HDTV (high-definition television), it is 16 × 9 (16 units wide by 9 units high). Mobile video has various aspect ratios, including vertical ones.
Object or any part of it seen at close range and framed tightly. The close-up can be extreme (extreme or big close-up) or rather loose (medium close-up).
Similar to the over-the-shoulder shot except that the camera-near person is completely out of the shot.
depth of field
The area in which all objects, located at different distances from the camera, appear in focus. Depends primarily on the focal length of the lens, its ƒ-stop, and the distance from the camera to the object.
field of view
The portion of a scene visible through a particular lens; its vista. Expressed in symbols, such as CU for close-up.
The space between the top of the head and the upper screen edge.
The space in front of a laterally moving object or person.
long shot (LS)
Object seen from far away or framed very loosely. The extreme long shot shows the object from a great distance. Also called establishing shot.
medium shot (MS)
Object seen from a medium distance. Covers any framing between a long shot and a close-up.
The space in front of a person looking or pointing toward the edge of the screen.
over-the-shoulder shot (O/S)
Camera looks over the camera-near person’s shoulder (shoulder and back of head included in shot) at the other person.
Mentally filling in missing visual information that will lead to a complete and stable configuration. Also called closure.
A directional screen force.There are graphic, index, and motion vectors.
Indicates screen depth. Extends from camera lens to horizon.
Heart-shaped pickup pattern of a unidirectional microphone.
High-quality, sensitive microphone for critical sound pickup.
A relatively rugged microphone. Good for outdoor use.
A volume control that works by sliding a button horizontally along a specific scale. Identical in function to a pot. Also called slide fader.
A very narrow unidirectional pickup pattern with a long reach. The mic is also sensitive to sounds coming directly from the back.
(1) Audio: a socket or receptacle for a connector. (2) Scenery: a brace for a flat.
A small microphone that is clipped to clothing. Also called lav.
Small audio connector.
Pickup pattern of a microphone that can hear equally well from all directions.
pick up pattern
The territory around the microphone within which the mic can hear well.
The two-dimensional representation of the microphone pickup pattern.
A wire-mesh screen attached to the front of a mic that reduces breath pops and sudden air blasts.
RCA phono plug
Connector for video and audio equipment.
High-quality, highly sensitive microphone for critical sound pickup in the studio, usually for recording string instruments.
The postproduction manipulation of recorded sound
Pickup pattern of a microphone that can hear best from the front.
Measures volume units, the relative loudness of amplified sound.
Graphic representation of a sound that occurs over a period of time.
Acoustic foam rubber that is put over the entire microphone to cut down wind noise
A moplike cloth cover that is put over the windscreen to further reduce wind noise in outdoor use. Also called wind jammer.
Professional three-wire connector for audio cables.
additive primary colors
Red, green, and blue. Ordinary white light (sunlight) can be separated into the three primary light colors. When these three colored lights are combined in various proportions, all other colors can be reproduced.
Shadow that is on the object itself. It cannot be seen independent of (detached from) the object.
Illumination of the set pieces and the backdrop. Also called set light.
Illumination from behind the subject and opposite the camera; usually a spotlight.
Even, nondirectional (diffused) light necessary for the camera to operate optimally. Refers to the overall light intensity.
Shadow that is produced by an object and thrown (cast) onto another surface. It can be seen independent of the object.
Relative reddishness or bluishness of white light, as measured on the Kelvin (K) scale. The norm for indoor video lighting is 3,200K; for outdoors, 5,600K.
The difference between the brightest and the darkest spots in a video image.
Light that illuminates a relatively large area and creates soft shadows.
Light that illuminates a relatively small area and creates harsh, clearly defined shadows.
The speed (degree) with which a light picture portion turns into shadow areas. Fast falloff means that the light areas turn abruptly into shadow areas and there is a great difference in brightness between light and shadow areas. Slow falloff indicates a very gradual change from light to dark and a minimal brightness difference between light and shadow areas.
Additional light on the opposite side of the camera from the key light to illuminate shadow areas and thereby reduce falloff; usually done with floodlights.
A lighting instrument that produces diffused light.
The unit of measurement of illumination, or the amount of light that falls on an object. One foot- candle is 1 candlepower of light (1 lumen) that falls on a 1-square-foot area located 1 foot away from the light source. See also lux.
Light background and ample light on the scene. Has nothing to do with the vertical positioning of the key light.
Light that strikes the object directly from its source. To measure incident light, point the light meter at the camera lens or into the lighting instruments.
Principal source of illumination; usually a spotlight.
A plan, similar to a floor plan, that shows the type, size (wattage), and location of the lighting instruments relative to the scene to be illuminated and the general direction of the light beams.
Fast-falloff lighting with dark background and selectively illuminated areas. Has nothing to do with the vertical positioning of the key light.
European standard unit for measuring light intensity. One lux is 1 lumen (1 candlepower) of light that falls on a surface of 1 square meter located 1 meter away from the light source. 10.75 lux = 1 foot-candle. Most lighting people figure roughly 10 lux = 1 foot-candle. See also foot-candle.
The triangular arrangement of key, back, and fill lights. Also called triangle, or three- point, lighting.
Light that is bounced off the illuminated object. To measure reflected light, point the light meter close to the object from the direction of the camera.
Stands for red, green, and blue—the basic colors of television.
A lighting instrument that produces directional, relatively undiffused light.
The triangular arrangement of key, back, and fill lights. Also called three-point lighting and photo- graphic principle. See photographic principle.
downstream keyer (DSK)
A control that allows a title to be keyed (cut in) over the picture (line-out signal) as it leaves the switcher.
Row of buttons on the switcher that can select the video sources for a specific effect. Usually the same as a mix bus that has been switched to an effects function.
A lever on the switcher that activates buses and can produce superimpositions, dissolves, fades, keys, and wipes of different speeds.
Row of buttons on the switcher used to select the video source to be inserted into the background image.
The line that carries the final video or audiooutput.
Row of buttons on the switcher that can serve mixor effects functions.
Row of buttons on the switcher that permits the mixing of video sources, as in a dissolve or a super.
Row of buttons on the switcher that can direct an input to the preview monitor at the same time another video source is on the air. Also called preset bus.
Row of buttons on the switcher, with inputs that are directly switched to the line-out.
(1) A panel with rows of buttons that allow the selection and the assembly of multiple video sources through a variety of transition devices as well as the creation of electronic effects. (2) Production person who is doing the switching.
A change from one video source to another and the creation of various transitions and effects during production with the aid of a switcher. Also called instantaneous editing.
Carefully worked-out positioning, movement, and actions by the talent and for all mobile video equipment used in a scene.
Fullrehearsalwithcamerasandother pieces of production equipment. Often identical to the dress rehearsal.
Rehearsalwithoutequipment,duringwhichthe basic actions of the talent are worked out. Also called blocking rehearsal.
Script format that lists the items to be shown on-camera and their main features. May contain sug- gestions of what to say about the product. Also called rundown sheet.
Simultaneous coordination of two or more cameras for instantaneous editing (switching).Also called control room directing and live-switched directing.
Fully scripted text with video information on page-left and news copy on page-right. The copy (spoken text) can also be in a large center column that also contains some additional information.
Written document that tells what the program is about, who says what, what is supposed to happen, and what and how the audience will see and hear the event.
The smallest convenient operational unit in video and film, usually the interval between two transitions. In cinema it may refer to a specific camera setup.
A list of every shot a particular camera has to get. It is attached to the camera to help the camera operator remember a shot sequence.
Any one of similar repeated shots taken during video-recording and filming.
Recording additional footage before and after the major shot content for precise editing. Also called pads.
The mental image of a shot. May also include the imagining of verbal and nonverbal sounds. Mentally converting a scene into a number of key video images and their sequence.
walk through/camera rehearsal
A combination of an orientation session for talent and crew and a follow-up rehearsal with full equipment. This combination re- hearsal is generally conducted from the studio floor.