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What are developmental concerns for infants in regard to skin?
Little subq tissue, physiologic jaundice may occur 2-3 days after birth, immacture sweat glands lead to poor thermoregulation, numerous skin lesion:mongolian spots, nevus, flammeus, hemangiomas
What are developmental concerns for children in regard to skin?
Axillary sweating increased, skin becomes oily, pubic and axillary hair appear
What are developmental concerns for older adults in regard to skin?
decreased circulation, pigmentation increases unevenly, may develop age related skin changes like skin tags, senile keratosis, cherry angiomas, atrophic warts. decrease in collagen, subq fat and sweat glands. loss of elasticity, nails thicken and harden
What are developmental concerns for pregnant clients in regard to skin?
increased blood flow to hands and feet, increased sweating, skin thickens and separates (striae), hyperpigmentation
What are developmental concerns for menopausal women in regard to skin?
hot flashes, skin flushing, increased facial hair, increased skin tags
What are cultural considerations in regard to skin?
- skin creases and folds are darker than the rest of skin in darker skinned people
- when pallor occurs brown skinned clients look yellow-brown and black skin looks ashen gray
- in dark skinnned clients assess cyanosis in east pigmented areas
What are some additional cultural considerations in regard to skin?
- erthyema is difficult to assess in dark skinned clients
- light skinned clients at increased risk for skin cancer
- african americans have higher incidence of keloids and mongolian spots
- sclera is best checked for jaundice in asian clients
What are risk factors for skin breakdown?
- limited mobility
- neurological impairment
- chronically ill
- orthopedic injuries
- decreased mental status
- poor tissue oxygenation
- low cardiac output
- poor nutrition
What is a macule?
flat, less than .5cm area of skin with different color from surrounding tissue, non-palpable, fine scale
What is a patch?
flat, more than .5 cm area with different surrounding tissue, patches may have non-palpable, fine scale
What is a vesicle?
fluid filled cavity or elevation less than .5 cm in diameter. fluid may be clear serous hemorrhagic or pus-filled
what is a bulla?
fluid filled blister greater than .5cm, may be clear, serous, hemorrhagic or purulent
What is a wheal?
an edematous, transitory papule or plaque having a righ of erythema know as a flare and surrounded often by a narrow peripheral zone of pallor or vasoconstriction.
What is a lesion:Papule?
discrete, solid elevated body usually less than .5 cm in diameter. further classified by shape, size, color, and surface changes.
What is a lesion:scale?
excess stratum corneum accumulated in flakes or plates. scales usually have a white or grey color
What is a lesion:plaque?
a discreet solid elevated body usually broader than it is thick measuring more than .5cm in diameter.
What is a lesion:nodule?
a dermal or subq firm, well defined lesion usually greater than .5 cm
What is a lesion:tumor?
solid mass of skin or subq tissue, larger than a nodule
What is a lesion:pustule?
circumscribed elevation that contains pus. usually less than .5 cm
What is a lesion:cyst?
closed cavity or sac containing fluid or semisolid material. may have epithelial or endothelial lining
What is a lesion:crust?
hardened layer that results when serum blood or purulent exudate dries on teh skin surface. may be thin or thick, yellow or brown if from serum, green from purulent exudate and red/black from blood
What is a lesion:excoriation?
a focal erosion due to scratching
What is a lesion:fissure?
linear crack or cleavage within the skin usually found in areas of thickened skin
What is a lesion:erosian?
slightly depressed areas of skin in which part or all of the epidermis has been lost
What is a lesion:ulcer?
circumscribed loss of the epidermis and at least upper dermis.
What is a lesion:scar?
thickening or thinning of skin with fibrous tissue replacing normal tissue as a result of injury or disease. depigmented