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what is the nuclear family?
traditional 2 parents & siblings
What is the single parent family?
unmarried biologic or adoptive parent raising children or a child
What is the blended family?
unrelated members joined together by marriage (stepfather, stepbrother)
What is the extended family?
uncles, aunts, grandparents, cousins, friends, kin
gay/lesbian family structure
faces social stigma & barriers in America
What are rigid boundaries in the family structure?
- Barriers may exist that keeps family from having meaningful relationships with others
- can become isolated or withdrawn from people, which can cause relationships to suffer
What are diffuse boudaries in the family structure?
- families do not have clear, definable boundaries with others
- can have problems defining who they are
- common to find family over-involvement in the each member's life
- characterized by a loss of independence by one or all involved family members
- over-involvement is usually reflected by parents and children who become increasingly dependent on each other at the expense of relationships outside the family
Explain culture and family?
It is an ongoing process, dynamic, influences people throughout the life span, includes values, religions, beliefs, and traditions past down from one generation to the next. Healthcare providers must assess & incorporate culture into the plan of care
What are the 4 components of cultural competence?
- Cultural competence-the ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures
- 4 components-
- awareness of one's own cultural worldview
- attitude towards cultural differences
- knowledge of different cultural practices and worldview
- cross-cultural skills
What must nurses consider in regards to the aspect of a family's culture?
- personal space
- time orientation
- family/gender roles
What is preconception care and what does it entail?
- women's health before she becomes pregnant
- focus on condition's and risk factors
- looks at factors that can affect fetus such as drugs, smoking, drinking alcohol
- key is get medical care, healthy behaviors, strong support
- taking action before pregnancy
What is HCG?
- A hormone that is produced shortly after a fertilized egg attaches to the uterine lining.
- production begins on the day of implantation & increases rapidly during the first two weeks
- can be detected in blood 6-11 days after implementation or one week after one missed period
what is/causes false-positive?
- Possible if you have traces of blood or protein in your urine
- interactions with prescription drugs
- using expired or damaged test kit
- taking the test too early
- using diluted urine
- negative result can be wrong
- timing the test wrong
What are the signs of pregnancy?
- Presumptive:changes felt by woman (fatigue, breast changes, missed periods, n&v)
- Probably:changes observed by health care provider (hegar's sign, chadwick's sign, ballottement, +pregnancy test)
- Positive:signs attributed to the presence of a fetus:fetal heart tones, fetal movement, ultrasound
How to assess risk factors?
- biophysical factors
- psychosocial factors
- sociodemographic factors
- environment factors
What are the biophysical factors related to high risk pregnancy?
Factors that interfere with normal fetal growth & development. genetics, chromosomal abnormalities, poor nutrition status, prenatal complications
What are the pyschosocial factors related to high risk pregnancy?
lifestyle choices, maternal behaviors, social influences that compromise maternal & fetal health
What are sociodemographic factors related to high risk pregnancy?
family and maternal status in society. race, class, ethnicity, low/no income, immigrant status, marital status, access to health care
What are environmental factors related to high risk pregnancies?
pollutants, radiation, chemicals, household cleaners, etc, can affect fetal growth & developmental as well as fertility
- evaluate nutritional status before, during & after pregnancy influences infant health, brain growth & development
- Dieting is never recommended
- Weight loss not recommended
What is Prenatal Nutrition
- Weight gain at a smooth, gradual rate, healthy weight gain 28-40 pounds
- first 3 months 2-5 lbs
- the remaining 6 months normal weight gain is about 2-6 lbs per month or one lb per week
What are key nutrients in prenatal & lactation?
- folic acid
- and prenatal vitamin
Food servings recommended during prenatal and lactation?
- Food serving
- 6-11 breads/cereals
- 3-5 vegetables
- 2-4 fruits
- 2-3 proteins
- 2-3 dairy
- 8 or more glasses of water
What are foods to avoid during prenatal & lactation?
alcohol, shark, swordfish, unpasteurized milk, refridgerated pate, unwashed vegetables, sushi, soft cheeses, raw eggs, mayo.
What are some of the parasites or bacteria that are harmful for pregnant women?
toxoplasmosis, t. gondii.
explain fetal movement?
- daily fetal movement-activity level, noninvasive. fetal movements is an important indicator of fetal well being.
- fetal movement may reflect changes in fetal well-being
- normal range of movements is 100-200 per day
What is an ultrasound?
conducted abdominally and transvaginally. full bladder allows better visualization of uterus. can detect fetal abnormalties/defects. fetus, amniotic sac, placenta, and ovaries viewed
Why would you do an ultrasound early in pregnancy?
presence of more than one fetus, due date or gestational age of the fetus
Why would you do an ultrasound later in pregnancy?
health of the baby, placenta location, amt of amniotic fluid around the baby, position of the baby