Biology 1200 Test 2

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Biology 1200 Test 2
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2012-03-01 20:17:42
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Terms and facts for Biology 1200 test two
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  1. Allopatric speciation can occur after which of the following conditions?
    • dispersal
    • vicariance
  2. Which of the following isolating mechanisms fits the criteria of being post-mating and prezygotic?
    genetic barrier
  3. Upland and southern chorus frogs exhibit greater differences in their call structure in areas of sympatry than in areas of allopatry. True or false
    True
  4. The name of a trait that helps define a monophyletic group
    Synapomorphy
  5. Female Rhagoletis select fruit for egg deposition primarily by
    fruit scent
  6. _____________ is the form of polyploidy where the gene sets are derived from two different species
    allopolyploidy
  7. A hexaploid plant has a chromosome count of 36. Which is the correct chromosome number for its diploid ancestor?
    12
  8. The African forest elephant was first recognized as a separate species using which species concept?
    phylogenetic species concept
  9. Cryptic species do not qualify as distinct species under the biological species concept.
    False
  10. Interactions observed
    between Townsend's warbler and the hermit warbler-- two closely related and presumably recently evolved species --- provide a great example of reinforcement. t or f
    False
  11. Condition where more than two species arise from a single node in a phylogenetic tree is called a
    polytomy
  12. Another term that has the same meaning as monophyletic group.
    clade
  13. Term used to describe an assemblage of species whose most recent common ancestor is not part of the group.
    polyphyletic group
  14. A trunk crown Anolis from Hispaniola should be most closely related to a
    A twig Anolis from Hispaniola
  15. An adaptive radiation can be the result of
    • ecological opportunity
    • key innovation
  16. Terminal branches in a phylogenetic tree are called
    tips
  17. The taxonomic category order falls just below the category class and just above the category family.
    True
  18. Modern whales and dolphins do not possess a pulley-like astragalus and therefore should not be included in the order Artiodactyla. true or false
    False
  19. _______ is the science of (and rules for) describing and classifying species and higher level phylogenetic groups
    Taxonomy
  20. The scientific name for the chimpanzee is Pan troglodytes; the second part of its binomial, troglodytes, is called the ____________.
    specific epithet
  21. What happens when populations become genetically isolated from one another?
    When populations are genetically isolated, they evolve independently of one another!! Leads to speciation
  22. Define speciation
    the evolution of one or more species from an ancestral species
  23. What is a species under the BSC?
    • actual interbreeding populations & potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups (ability to
    • reproduce)
  24. prezygotic isolation
    • prevents mating or zygot formation between species,
    • Habitat isolation
    • Temporal isolation-time
    • Behavioral isolation
    • Gametic barrier- fertilization doesn’t take place
    • Mechanical barrier- just doesan’t work
  25. The mule provides an example of???
    A hybrid, postzygotic isolation
  26. What are some of the problems with the BSC?
    • Asexual organisms
    • Fossils
    • Hybridization
  27. Morphospecies
    Concept
    What are its advantages? Disadvantages?
    • based on differences in shape, size, or other morphological features
    • advantage is asexual and fossils
    • disadvantage can’t account for cryptic species.
  28. What are some of the problems with the Biological species concept?•
    • Asexual organisms•
    • Fossils•
    • Hybridization
  29. Phylogenetic Species Concept
  30. Monophyly
    at least one derived trait that is unique to the group and occurs in all members of the group.
  31. Synapomorphy-
    shared derived trait between descendants of a common ancester
  32. Why are synapomorphy and monophyly to the Phylogenetic Species Concept?
    They are used to identify related species
  33. Cryptic species: look identical morphologically, but are reproductively isolated.
  34. Cryptic species.
    Which species concept are they consistent with?
    Inconsistent with?
    Inconsistent with Morphospecies Concept. Correct with other concepts
  35. Which species concept (s) ‘work ‘ with respect to fossils? To exclusively asexual organisms?
    Morphospecies concept
  36. The seaside sparrow subspecies peninsulae along Florida’s western coast appears to be in big trouble, i.e., going extinct. You are newly hired population geneticist in charge of its recovery. Would it be better to cross the few remaining individuals with Florida populations of the subspecies macgillvraii or junicola?
    The junicola, because peninsulae and junicola are both sub species of the same monophyletic group
  37. What do dispersal and vicariance share in common? How do they differ?
    • Vicariance- the splitting of a habitat
    • Dispersal-a section of a population disperses from the main population
    • Both "split" a population
  38. Distinguish between allopatric
    speciation vs. sympatric speciation. Provide examples of both.
    • Allopatric-the population has been parted due to geographic isolation (more common) (Shrimp)
    • Sympatric speciation-species variation has taken place without geographical isolation (due to ecological isolation) (apple and hawthorn maggots)
  39. Which is more rare and why? Which of the two likely involves a ‘host shift’?
    • Sympatric speciation is rarer, it requires a
    • specific situation (example: the apple flys)
  40. Polyploidy=
    a genetic state involving more than two complete sets of chromosomes
  41. Autopolyploidy-
    chromosome sets from same species
  42. Allopolyploidy
    chromosome sets from two different species (via hybridization)
  43. Complete set in genetics
    haploid, there’s two sets of chromosomes per person so a complete set is the sperm or egg
  44. Consider a pentaploid (5n) and an octoploid (8n) undergoing meiosis. Which is more likely to produce
    functional gametes? Why?
    I would think the octoploid, as the pentaploid would be an uneven number, leading to more complications and more likelihood of uneven numbered gametes
  45. Name a major taxonomic group in which polyploidy has played a significant role in speciation.
    Plants, they can undergo meiosis and produce gametes after many rounds of mitosis, some can self- fertilize, and hybridization is common
  46. Reinforcement-
    • the natural selection of traits that prevent interbreeding between
    • recently diverged species
  47. Reinforcement. In our example, what was the significance of size differences between the two millipede species in areas of sympatry?
    Size differences make interbreeding less likely, reinforcing reproductive isolation and divergence
  48. Sympatry-
    species are close enough to permit breeding vs allopatry
  49. What are hybrid zones?
    A geographic area where interbreeding occurs and hybrid zones can form.
  50. How do you determine character polarity?
    Use the outgroup method
  51. What is an ancestral character?
    A characteristic that existed in an ancestor, the outgroup, 0 on the data matrix
  52. What is a derived character?
    One that is a modified form of the ancestral trait found in a descendant. 1 on data matrix
  53. What is a synapomorphy, why are they important?
    A shared derived trait, it’s what used to place organisms into monophyletic groups (clades)
  54. Monophyletic-
    A group that includes an ancestor and all its descendants
  55. Paraphyletic-
    Contains some but not all descendants
  56. Polyphyletic-
    • Group whose most recent common ancestor is not
    • in the group.
  57. Parsimony
    The logical principle that the most likely explanation of a phenomenon is the most economical or simplest. Fewest branching
  58. How does the principle of parsimony help you to select among possible trees?
    With phylogenetic trees, it suggests that the one requiring the fewest evolutionary changes is most likely to be correct. As few branches as possible
  59. What is an adaptive radiation?
    • Rapid evolutionary diversification producing many species that display a wide range of adaptive forms.
    • Many species radiating from a single node or lineage
  60. Outline necessary steps for adaptive
    radiation. Provide examples.
    • 1 A single lineage 2 rapid speciation3 ecologically diverse
    • Tarweed to 30 species of silver
    • sword
    • Anolis to hundreds of species of
    • Anolis in Caribbean
  61. Why do you think adaptive radiations occur more readily on islands?
    Yes, any new “blank slate” environment
  62. Compare ecological opportunity vs. morphological
    innovation.
    • Ecological opportunity is when
    • there is a blank slate that a specie can expand on, morphological innovation or key innovation involves a trait that a specie has that almost allows it a blank slate, ie the different throat teeth in the fish species from class
  63. What was the Cambrian explosion?
    When did it occur?
    • Abrupt appearances of many species, all the major phylums.Origin and adaptive radiation of
    • animals
  64. What explanations are offered for the Cambrian explosion?
    • Highest oxygen levels
    • Evolution of predation
    • (evolutionary pressure to produce mechanisms to either escape or protect themselves from predation ie increased mobility or hard
    • shell/exoskeleton)
    • Niche access and expansion
    • Hox gene duplication, anatomical
    • complexity
  65. What is a mass extinction? How many are there in the
    paleontological record?
    • Mass extinction- Extinction of a large number of elvolutionary change in a relativy short period of time
    • extraordinary sudden and temporary changes in environment
    • There have been five major extinctions
  66. End-Cretaceous (KP) extinction and the End-Permian extinction
    • Permian- over 50 % families and 90 % species, 65 million years
    • Causes- ?
  67. (look up criteria for mass extinction in book, it’ll be on test)
  68. What is systematics?
    The study of the evolutionary history of organisms, including any & all relationships among them.
  69. Know our system of biological classification
    Keep pond clean or froggy gets sick
  70. What is a binomial species name? How is it written?
  71. Know the difference between genus name andspecific epithet.
  72. What is the 6th mass extinction
    Modern world extinction caused by humans through the transformation of landscape, over exploition of species, pollution, and the introduction of alien species. WE ARE OVERPOPULATED
  73. Know the difference between genus name and specific epithet.
    Homo sapiens (Genus then specific epithet)
  74. What is a phylogeny?
    The evolutionary history & pattern of descent of a group of organisms.
  75. Why do we construct phylogenetic trees? Illustration
    of the historical pattern of descent of such a group.
    Illustration of the historical pattern of descent of such a group.
  76. Why is phylogenetic reconstruction a non-trivial task, i.e., why is it difficult?
  77. Branch
    represents a population through time
  78. Node-
    Indicates a speciation event at the end of a branch, splits into two or more species.
  79. Tips-
    species or taxons of the present or a specie that has gone extinct
  80. root-
  81. sister group
  82. outgroup
  83. How are phylogenetic trees constructed?
  84. Differentiate between phenetics and cladistics
  85. How do you determine character polarity?
    Use the outgroup method
  86. What is an ancestral character?
    A characteristic that existed in an ancestor, the outgroup, 0 on chart
  87. What is a derived character?
    One that is a modified form of the ancestral trait found in a descendant. 1 on chart
  88. What is a synapomorphy, why are they important?
    A shared derived trait, it’s what used to place organisms into monophyletic groups (clades)

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