Plant Physiology Test 1

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Plant Physiology Test 1
2013-09-15 16:27:53

Test 1
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  1. The word _____ is translated from the Greek physis, meaning nature, and logos meaning discourse, study of, explanation of, or spoken or unspoken word.
  2. _____ can be defined as the complete biochemical and biophysical nature of plants, and how the underlying processes of metabloism and environmental response work as a whole for plant growth, development, behavior, and survival.
    Plant Physiology
  3. Plants capture the energy of sunlight and covert it to strored chemical energy in the form of _____, _____, and _____.
    ATP, NADPH, and carbohydrate
  4. The carbohydrate molecules of _____ and _____ are used as precursors in the construction of nearly all the biomolueucles that comprise the plant body.
    3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (3-PGAL) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)
  5. The environments of the earth, and all other natural systems are constantly moving towards a state of increasing _____ or _____, which is the _____.
    • Entropy or Disorder
    • Second Law of Thermodynamics
  6. The two types of life strategies to accomplish extraction of energy from the environment are _____ and _____.
    Photoautotrophs and Chemiautotrophs
  7. _____ are organisms that use sunlight as an energy source to accomplish and maintain order and specificity.
  8. _____ are organisms that use chemical energy available in the envoronment to accomplish and maintain order and specificity.
  9. Photosynthetic organisms are able to take up CO2 from the environment and combine it with organic molecules to build new complex organic molecules in a process known as _____.
    CO2 Fixation or Carbon Fixation
  10. Phototrophic organisms gain useable energy through both _____ and the process of _____.
    Photosynthesis and Respiration
  11. What are the six general categories of biochemical reactions that occur in neraly all cells?
    • Group Transfer
    • Rearrangement
    • Cleavage
    • Condensation/Dehydration Synthesis
    • Hydrolysis
    • Oxidation/Reduction
  12. _____ is the transfer functional groups to different portions of the molecule, or transfer of functional groups between two different molecules and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
    Group Transfer 

  13. _____ rearranges the bond structure around one or more carbons in the molecule and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.

  14. _____ breaks carbon-carbon bonds (bonds between two carbon atoms) and is enzyme mediated.
  15. _____/_____ is when two molecules condense/combine with the elimination of water and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.
    Condensation/Dehydration Synthesis

  16. In _____, one molecule is split into two or more parts by the addition of water to a specific bond in that molecule and can reverse a condensation reaction.  It is accomplished by _____ enzymes.

  17. _____ is the transfer or acceptance of electrons and hyrdogens from one molecule to another and is accomplished by _____ enzymes.

  18. Most enzymes are _____, however a few enzymes occur as _____ molecules.

    Catalytic RNA
  19. The catalytic capability of an enzyme depends on its _____.
    Native Confirmation
  20. Some enzymes consist only of amino acids, whereas others require an additional chemical componenet for proper frunctioning known as a _____.
  21. The cofactor may be one or more metal ions, or a complex organic or metallorganic molecule known as a _____.
  22. _____ function as transient carriers of specific functional groups.
  23. A coenzyme or metal ion that is covalently bonded to the protein portion of the enzyme is referred to as a _____.
    Prosthetic Group
  24. The enzyme plus its coenzyme and/or metal ion(s) is referred to as a _____.
  25. The protein portion of holoenzymes is referred to as an _____ or _____.
    Apoprotein or Apoenzyme
  26. What are the 7 categories or classes of enzymes:
    • Oxidoreductase
    • Transferase
    • Hydrolase
    • Lyase
    • Isomerase
    • Ligase
    • Kinase
  27. _____ catalyzes the transfer of electrons, hydrogen ions (H+), or hydride (H-) ions.
  28. _____ catalyzes group transfer reactions.
  29. _____ catalyzes hydrolysis reactions.
  30. _____ catalyzes the addition of groups to double bonds or formation of double bonds by removal of groups.
  31. _____ catalyzes transfer of functional groups within molecules to produce isomeric forms.
  32. _____ are any two molecules with the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of molecular groups, i.e. atoms.
  33. _____ catalyzes the formation of C-C, C-O, C-N, or C-S bonds through condensation reactions coupled to ATP cleavage.
  34. _____ catalyzes the transfer of the terminal phosphate group of ATP to some other molecule (actually a subclass of transferase enzymes).
  35. The basic components necessary to sustain life on earth are:
    • Water (HOH, H2O)
    • Diatomic Oxygen (O2)
    • Ozone (O3)
    • CO2
    • Certain essential elements
    • Sunlight
  36. _____ from the sun is the ultimate source of energy for the earth's biospere.
    Electromagnetic radiation
  37. The earth's atmosphere contains four of the major elements essential for life:
    • Nitrogen
    • Carbon
    • Oxygen
    • Hydrogen
  38. Water is a _____ molecule and has a special chemical property known as _____.

    Hydrogen bonding
  39. Other than Hydrogen, the other two principle elements that actively engage in hydrogen bonding are _____ and _____.
    Oxygen and Hydrogen
  40. Molecules that readily dissolve in water are known as _____.
  41. Molecules that are not soluble in water are known as _____.
  42. _____ can be defined as the potential energy of water; the work water can do as it moves from one area to a different area; and can be used to express the difference between the energy potential of water at any point in a system and that of pure water under standard conditions.
    Water Potential
  43. _____ of the water molecules and _____ are two of the things that water potential can be used to determine.
    Transitional Kinetic Energy

    Capacity to do work
  44. The energy content water is most easily described in terms of its _____.
    Chemical potential
  45. _____ can be defined as the free energy per mole of a given substance and is a measure of the capacity of a substance to react or move.
    Chemical potential
  46. Osmosis will occur when the _____ of water on one side of the membrane exceeds the molar free energy of the other side of the membrane.
    Molar Free Energy
  47. When solutes are dissolved in water, the _____ of water is decreased in solution, and the chemical potential and the molar free energy of the water is also decreased.
    Mole Fraction
  48. Water will move from areas of _____ solute concentration to areas of _____ solute potential.

  49. Plant cells control the flow of water in and out of the _____ by changing the concentration of solutes in the cell, thus lowering or raising the water potential of the cell accordingly.
  50. _____ is the process whereby a plant cell regulates its water status through the accumulation of solutes.  This is an energy requiring process.
    Osmotic adjustment
  51. Water potential (ψ) is equal to the _____ (P) minus the _____ (π).
    Hydrostatic pressure (P)

    Osmotic Pressure (π)
  52. The driving force for water movement is the _____ - water will move from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential
    Water potential gradient
  53. Water potential (ψ) is equal to the _____ plus _____ plus _____.
    Pressure potential (ψP)

    Solute potential (Osmotic potential) (ψS)

    Matric Potential (ψM)
  54. _____ is idential to hydrostatic pressure and represents the hydrostatic pressure in excess of the ambient atmosphere.
    Pressure potential ψP
  55. _____ is the same as the osmotic pressure.
    Solute potential (osmotic potential) ψS
  56. Matric potential is the result of _____ of water to solid surfaces, and is important during _____ (water uptake) by sees and soil water potential.

  57. The pressure potential arises from the force exerted outwardly against the cell walls by the expanding protoplast.  This is known as _____.
    Turgor pressure
  58. The equal and opposite of turgor pressure is _____ and is exerted by the cell wall on the protoplast.
    Wall pressure
  59. A cell experiencing turgor pressure is said to be _____.
  60. A cell that experiences water loss to the point where the turgor pressure is zero is considered to be _____
  61. Five items, known as _____, are primarily responsible for the development of soil and the physical and chemical character of developed soil.
    Soil-forming factors
  62. What are the 5 soil-forming factors?
    • 1. Parent Material
    • 2. Climate
    • 3. Biota
    • 4. Topography
    • 5. Time
  63. Solid rocks are gradually _____ into loosened soil materials.
  64. The various, distinguishable layers of soil that occur are referred to as _____.
  65. The vertical exposure of the soil with its various horizons or layers is referred to as the _____.
    Soil Profile
  66. _____ can be defined as the production of nonconsolidated material by weathering processes, and soil profile development.
    Soil formation
  67. The soil _____ can consist of one or more horizons.
  68. _____ has two different subcategories: 1. most plant parts are still readily identifiable; usually very thin or 2. altered enough to where identification of the specific type of plant materials is usually no longer possible and many centimeters thick.
    O Horizon
  69. To be classified as an O horizon, must contain ___% or more organic matter.
  70. The _____ is the mineral horizon darkened by organic matter accumulation, usually fairly thin.
    A Horizon
  71. The _____ is mineral horizon that is lighter colored than the A or O horizon above it and the B horizon below it; formed because fine clays and minute organic substances have been leached out by percolating waters.
    E Horizon
  72. The _____ is a transition horizon more like the A or E above than the B below it.
    AB Horizon
  73. The _____ is a transition horizon more like the B below it, than the A or E above it.
    BA Horizon
  74. The _____ is a layer of illuvial colloids (accumulated by movement in solution or suspension in water) or evidence of weathering below the A horizon; marked by accumulation of small particles that have leached and accumulated from the O, A, and/or E horizons; often high in clay and low in organic matter.
    B Horizon
  75. The _____ is a transition horizon from the B to the C horizon.
    BC Horizon
  76. The _____ is unconsolidated material; little evidence of profile development.
    C Horizon
  77. The _____ is underlying material consisting of bedrock or softer materials; often the parent material for the overlying soil.
    R Horizon
  78. List the horizons from the top to the bottom:
    • O
    • A
    • E
    • AB
    • BA
    • B
    • BC
    • C
    • R
  79. Soil particles (also known as _____) come in three basic classes: _____, _____, and _____.

    Sand, Silt, and Clay
  80. _____ are assigned to soils based on their predominate particle type.
    Textural Classes
  81. What are the 5 particle classes of sand and their size?
    • Very coarse sand 2.0-1.0 mm
    • Coarse sand 1.0-0.5
    • Medium sand 0.5-0.25
    • Fine sand 0.25-0.10
    • Very fine sand 0.10-0.05
  82. Very coarse sand and coarse sand have _____ water and nutrient holding capacity and _____ aeration.

  83. Silt is _____mm and has _____ water and nutrient holding capacity and _____ aeration.


  84. Clay is _____mm and has _____ water and nutrient holding capacity and _____ aeration.
    less than 0.002mm


  85. _____ is a stable, highly decomposed form of organic matter.
  86. _____ is produced by the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay that comprise the particular soil.
    Soil texture
  87. _____ is the arrangement and structure of the soils solid and porous phase.  Includes the morphology of the soil solum, and the arrangement and spatial and structural relationship of all physical aspects of the soil itself, primarily the relationships between the separates.
    Soil structure
  88. Soil structure is also a function of secondary structures known as _____, which are clusters of separates held together by organic substances, iron oxides, carbonates, clays, and or silicates.
  89. Natural aggregates are also known as _____.
  90. Soil structure affects the _____, and ultimately the soil's ability to retain water and aeration.
  91. Porosity or _____ (also known as _____) refers to the interconnected channels between irregularly shaped soil particles or particle aggregates.
    Pore space

  92. Under field conditions, pore spaces are always occupied by _____ and _____.

  93. Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is greater than 5mm.
  94. Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is 2-5mm.
  95. Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is 0.5-2mm.
  96. Pores are described according to their average diameter in millimeters, _____ is less than 0.5mm.
    Very fine
  97. There are two major categories of pores: _____ and _____
    Large pores

    Capillary pores
  98. Water is not regularly held (against gravity) by _____, and drains from them via the force of gravity.
    Large pores
  99. Only _____ will hold water against gravity.
    Capillary pores
  100. When a soil is completely saturated with water (all of the capillary pores are filled with water after the force of gravity has drained off all excess) it is said to be at _____.
    Field capacity
  101. The _____ is the water content of soil when all of the pores are filled with water.
    Saturation percentage
  102. A _____ is a special class of soils that is comprised of sand, silt, and clay where none of these particles are the dominant particle type.
  103. Rate of oxygen exchange between the soil and the atmosphere is known as the _____.
    Oxygen Diffusion Rate
  104. Soils that are not compacted and have large pores have a _____ oxygen exchange rate than do soils that are compacted, waterlogged, having small pores, or pores that are bottlenecked and blocked by water.
  105. _____ are crystalline particles comprised of repeating arrangement of the atoms of which they are comprised.
  106. Most clays are comprised of planes of _____ atoms with _____ or _____ atoms holding it all together by ionic bonds.

    Silicon or aluminum
  107. A clay particle is known as a _____.
  108. A few types of clays have the oxygen and other atoms less regularly oriented and are known as _____.
    Amorphous materials
  109. Clays are negatively charged because hydrogen atoms that are part of the Al-OH or Si-OH ionize/disassociate from the clay particle (known as _____) leaving an unneutralized portion or negatively charged portion on the clay particle.
    Ionizable Hydrogen Ions
  110. _____ is the substitiution of one ion for another of similar size, but often with a lower positive valence.
    Isomorphous Substitution
  111. The negative sites or charges on the surface of the clay particle are known as _____.
    Cation Exchange Sites
  112. The cations are _____ or electrostatically attracted and held to the cation exchange sites.
  113. The total amount of negatively charged sites is known as the soil's _____.
    Cation Exchange Capacity
  114. Cations are replaced by other cations via the process of _____ (competition for the negative site because of a large number of ions present).
    Mass Action
  115. The exchange of one ion for another is termed _____.
    Cation exchange
  116. In reference to soils, _____ are substances that are in a state of fine subdivision with particles from one micrometer to one nanometer in size.
  117. In neutral to basic soils (pH greater than 6 or 7), the cation exchange normally hold _____, _____, and _____.
    • Ca+2
    • Mg+2
    • K+1
  118. In acidic soils, cation exchange sites are mostly occupied by _____ and _____, followed by _____, _____, and _____.
    • Al(OH)2+1
    • H+1
    • Na+1
    • NH4+1
    • Zn+2
  119. Colloids that have appreciable _____ are those that have a correspondingly low cation exchange capacity.
    Anion Exchange Capacity
  120. Humus is often referred to as an _____.
    Organic colloid
  121. In addition to chains of carbon atoms, humus is comprised of about 30% nitrogen rich protein, lignin, and complex carbohydrates known as _____.
  122. _____ is an indicator of the acidity or basicity of the soil and is measured in pH units.
    Soil reaction pH
  123. Most micronutrient problems on basic soils are solved by adding special fertilizers, such as water soluble _____.
  124. Chelates are stable, soluble complexes of metal ions and an organic molecule known as a _____ or _____.
    Chelating agent or Ligand
  125. The metal ion and the ligand share electron pairs forming a _____.
    Coordinate Bond
  126. _____, such as hemoglobin, cytochrome, and chlorophyll are natural chelating agents.
  127. _____, another natural ligand, is secreted by the roots of plants that are iron deficient.
    Caffeic acid
  128. _____, low molecular weight, iron binding ligands, can also be released by the roots of plants and very selectively scavenge for iron from the rhizosphere.
  129. Once the iron atom is bound by the phytosiderophore, the entire complex known as a _____, is taken up by the root.
  130. _____ is the movement of water into soils. Soil texture, structure, organic matter content, and compaction all affect the soil's ability to hold water.
  131. Water is held in the soil because of the _____ between water and soil particles.
    Electrostatic Interactions
  132. The hydrogen atoms of water molecules can electrostatically bond via hydrogen bonding to adsorbed water molecules, creating a _____ of several layers of water molecules around a single soil particle.
  133. The forces that hold water to soil are _____. The more clay and organic matter a soil has, the greater it water holding capacity.
    Surface-attractive forces
  134. _____ can be defined as the work the water can do when it moves from its present state to a pool of water.
    Water potential
  135. _____ is defined as the work the water can do when it moves from its present state to a pool of water in the defined reference state, and it used to determine the strength at which soil water is held.
    Soil water potential
  136. Plane standing water has a water potential of _____.
  137. Soil water potential is a combination of the effects of the surface area of soil particles and small soil particles that adsorb water (_____), dissolved substances (_____), and elevation and gravity (_____).
    Matric potential

    Solute or Osmotic potential

    Gravitational potential
  138. Water moves through soil either by _____ (this usually occurs very rapidly after heavy rainfall or flooding) or by _____ (where water moves more slowly in all directions from areas of higher potential to areas of lower potential).
    Gravity Flow

    Capillary Movement
  139. Capillary water moves through soil because of a _____.
    Water potential gradient
  140. Soil water potential is measured in _____, or more precisely in _____.
    Pascals (Pa)

    kilo Pascals (kPa)
  141. _____ is water that is held in the soil at a potential of greater than -33kPa.
    Gravitational Water
  142. _____ is the portion of stored soil water that is available for plant uptake at a rate that is fast enough for plant survival (more or less keeps pace with transpiration). Ranges from -33 to -1,500 kPa.
    Plant-available water
  143. _____ are formed naturally under plant cover and after forest fires.  Plants can exude or drip resinous compounds into the soils.
    Water-repellent soils
  144. Ion uptake by the cells in roots is _____.
    Extremely selective
  145. For unchanged solutes, concentration gradient alone determines the gradient in _____.
    Chemical potential
  146. Movement of ions, in addition to chemical potential, is also affected by the _____.
    Electric potential
  147. Ions move in response to _____ and the electrical properties of the cell, or its _____.
    Electrochemical gradients

    Transmembrane potential
  148. Active transport is driven by _____.
    ATPase-proton pumps
  149. 5 functions of ATPase-proton pumps:
    • 1. transport of solutes
    • 2. regulation of cytoplasmic pH
    • 3. stomatal opening and closure
    • 4. sucrose transport during phloem loading
    • 5. hormone-mediated cell elongation
  150. There is a portion of the plant's root system that is not separated from the external environment by a membrane.  This portion is known as the _____ (there is no diffusion barrier between this portion and the external environment).
    Apparent free space
  151. The cation exchange capacity of the apparent free space is owed to the negatively charged _____ of the galacturonic acid residues in the cell wall pectic compounds.
    Carboxyl groups (R-COO-)
  152. Prior to entering the xylem tissue, all ions must first enter the symplast of the endodermal cells [ions are generally precluded from crossing the endodermis via the apoplast because of the _____ (_____) found in the transverse and longitudinal walls of the endodermal cells].
    Casparian strips (casparian bands)
  153. The tangential walls of the endodermal cells are not _____.
  154. _____ of the endodermis, if present, may represent a major point of entry of solutes into the stele.
    Passage cells
  155. _____ involves the uptake from the environment of all the raw materials required for essential biochemical processes, the distribution of these materials in the plant, and their use in metabolism, growth and reproduction.
    Plant Nutrition
  156. There are 17 _____ or _____ for plant survival and growth.
    Essential elements or essential nutrient elements
  157. Some elements known as _____ are only essential for the survival of certain plants, or are accumulated by a specific type of plant, but are not essential for its survival.
    Beneficial elements
  158. Non-essential and essential elements are usually taken up by the plant as inorganic ions (the ion is sometimes _____ or often _____)
    Monatomic or often Polyatomic
  159. _____ are required in large amounts by the plant (1,000 mg/kg of dry matter or greater).
  160. _____ are required in very small amounts by the plant (less than 100 mg/kg of dry matter).
    Micronutrients or Trace Elements
  161. Name the 9 macronutrients:
    • Hydrogen
    • Carbon
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Potassium
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Phosphorous
    • Sulfur
  162. Name the 8 micronutrients
    • Chlorine
    • Iron
    • Boron
    • Manganese
    • Zinc
    • Copper
    • Nickel
    • Molybdenum
  163. Name the 3 beneficial elements:
    • Sodium
    • Cobalt
    • Silicon
  164. What is the preferred uptake form of nitrogen?
  165. What is the preferred uptake form of phosphorous?
  166. What is the preferred uptake form of Sulfur?
  167. What is the preferred uptake form of iron?
  168. What is the preferred uptake form of copper?
  169. _____ is a component of cell walls; production of O2 from photolysis of water in the oxygen evolving complex (photosynthesis); enzyme cofactor and regulator; protein phosphorylation; secondary hormonal messenger; involved in cellular membrane permeability; aids in regulating membrane activities; aids in induction of various nastic and tropic responses, including as a component of the protein calmodulin; and cytoplasmic streaming.
  170. _____ is also important in mediating growth responses, including polarized cell growth and mitosis and meiosis-cell plate formation and plays a role in the mitotic spindle.
  171. _____ deficiency symptoms include malformation and necrosis of young leaves, poor root growth and discolored and slippery roots, necrosis and rotting of fruits.

  172. In extreme calcium deficiencies, the entire ________ will die.
  173. Calcium is relatively immobile in the plant body, thus symptoms usually occur in the _____ tissues first.
  174. _____, _____, and _____ are the major components of the plant's organic compounds and the plant body itself. Practically the entire plant body.
    Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon
  175. Plant growth, development, and survival as a whole is minimized without an adequate supply of these three elements
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon
  176. _____ is a component of cell walls; component of chlorophyll molecules; stabilization of ribosome structure; activator for many enzymes, forms complexes with ATP to increase the free energy associated with ATP hydrolysis.
  177. Magnesium is _____ in the plant body.
  178. _____ (yellowing of the plant tissues) is the primary symptom of magnesium deficiency and is particularly pronounced in the lamina or blade tissues between the veins.
  179. _____ is an essential component of amino acids, proteins (including enzymes), nucleotides, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, cytochromes, some hormones (IAA and cytokinins), ATP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2, flavins, betacyanins, and many secondary metabolites.
  180. Nitrogen is very mobile in the plant, thus symptomology is first seen on _____ leaves and herbaceous tissues.
  181. Primary symptoms of nitrogen deficiency are
    Slow, stunted growth and chlorosis
  182. Accumulations of anthocyanins in the tissues, giving the plant a reddish or purple coloration, along with older leaves becoming necrotic and abscising are also symptoms of _____ deficiency.
  183. Excess _____ stimulates abundant vegetative growth compared to root growth and can delay flowering in some species.
  184. Too little nitrogen can
    induce flowering earlier than normal.
  185. In the plant, ___________ is usually found as phosphate esters and is essential for carrying out normal metabolic processes.
  186. _____ is a component of energy-carrying and electron-carrying molecules associated with cellular energetics (ATP, UTP, GTP, CTP, NADPH, FADH2); component of DNA and RNA; component of phospholipids, sugar phosphates, phosphorylated organic acids, inorganic phosphate, and several coenzymes.
  187. _____ is essential for sulfur metabolism.
  188. _____ is usually the most common limiting element for plant growth and development in natural systems.
  189. What are the 3 reasons phosphorous is the most common limiting element for plant growth?
    • 1. Phosphorous tends to form insoluble complexes with aluminum and iron in acidic soils
    • 2. Phosphorous may also be bound up in organic form.
    • 3. Plants must compete with soil microflora for what phosphorous is available.
  190. Organic phosphorous must first be converted to inorganic phosphorous by soil microorganisms or through the actin of _____ released by the roots.
    Phosphatase enzymes
  191. Phosphorous is _____ in the plant body.
  192. _____ deficiency symptoms include: leaves with an intense green coloration and in extreme cases leaves may become curled and have necrotic spots.
  193. Excess _____ allows the development of a large root system.
  194. _____ is the most abundant cellular cation.
  195. _____ is involved in osmosis (including regulation of cellular osmotic potential) and ionic balance (charge balancing); plant movements, including opening and closing of stomata, turgor regulation in general, and various turgor-operated movements and mechanisms; is an activator for many enzymes; and is involved in starch and protein synthesis.
  196. Potassium is _____ in the plant body.
  197. _____ deficiency symptoms include: mottling or chlorosis in older leaves, followed by necrotic lesions (spots) on the leaf margins, shortened and weakened stems, susceptibility to root-rotting fungi is increased.
  198. Potassium deficient plants are easily _____ (stems are easily bent and often found bent over).
  199. Sulfur is used primarily in stabilization of the native conformation of proteins and enzymes by _____ (S-S).
    Disulfide Bridges
  200. _____ is a component of some amino acids and proteins; essential component of coenzyme A and the vitamins thiamine and biotin; component of certain secondary metabolites; nitrogen fixation and fatty acid metabolism; and  photosynthesis and respiration by being a component in iron-sulfur proteins in electron carriers.
  201. Sulfur is important for the production of the molecule _____ and important in the structure of some _____.

  202. Sulfur is _____ in the plant body.
  203. Deficiency symptoms of _____ include, generalized chlorosis of younger leaves first, followed by older leaves.
  204. Mycorrhizal fungi help plants in the uptake of _____, _____, _____, and _____.
    • Phosphorous
    • Zinc
    • Manganese
    • Copper
  205. _____ influences calcium utilization, involved in nucleic acid synthesis, membrane integrity, cell division and elongation, structural stability and integrity of the cell wall, and pollen tube initiation, formation, and elongation.
  206. Much of the boron in plant cells is found in the _____.
    Cell Wall
  207. Borate has the ability to form _____ with cell wall polysaccharides and other sugars, such as mannose and its derivatives that have adjacent hydroxyl groups.
    Stable esters
  208. Shoot and root growth and elongation are slowed or inhibited by a lack of _____.  Necrosis of young leaves and meristems occurs later.
  209. Other symptoms of _____ deficiency are shortened internodes, enlarged stems, and bushy, highly branched plants.  Stem crack and heart rot in storage roots are also caused by _____ deficiencies.
  210. _____ is involved in osmosis and ionic balance, opening and closing of the stomata, production of O2 from photolysis of water in the oxygen evolving complex (photosynthesis), cell division in leaves and roots, and nitrogen assimilation into organic compounds.
  211. _____ is rarely limited enough in the environment to be deficient in plants.
  212. _____ is an activator or component of many oxidase enzymes and electron carriers, involved with oxidation/reductions in photosynthesis.
  213. _____ readily forms chelates with organic humus and this may be a source of it for plant uptake.
  214. _____ deficiency symptoms include stunted growth, distortion of leaves, and especially in species of the genus Citrus, the loss of young leaves.
  215. _____ is required for chlorophyll synthesis, component of cytochromes and nitrogenase enzymes, involved in oxidation/reduction reactions of photosynthesis, and is a component of certain proteins.
  216. Iron is important for two main functions in the plant:
    • 1. it is part of the catalytic group of many redox carriers or enzymes
    • 2. chlorophyll synthesis
  217. Iron mobility in the plant is _____.
    Very limited
  218. _____ deficiencies lead to a lack of chlorophyll synthesis and degradation of chloroplast structure.
  219. _____ deficiency symptoms occurs as a generalized chlorosis in young leaves and stems, in severe cases the leaves are pale yellow or almost white.
  220. _____ is needed in the highest amount of the micronutrients and is considered a macronutrient by some.
  221. _____ is involved in the activation of certain enzymes, required for integrity of the chloroplast membrane and for oxygen release from the oxygen evolving complex in photosynthesis.
  222. In the OEC, manganese is bound by a _____.
  223. Manganese can sometimes substitute for _____ in reactions involving ATP.
  224. _____ deficiency symptoms includes gray speck in cereal grains and is represented by green-ish gray, oval spots on the basal regions on young leaves.
  225. _____ and _____ are needed the least by plants.
    Molybdenum and Nickel
  226. _____ is required for nitrogen fixation and nitrate reduction. Also a component of the enzymes dinitrogenase and nitrate reductase.
  227. Molybdenum deficiency symptoms mimic those of _____ deficiency.
  228. _____ is an essential part of some enzymes that function in nitrogen metabolism (urase and hydrogenase).
  229. Deficiency symptoms of _____ lead to reduced hydrogenase activity and probably reduced efficiency in nitrogen fixation into organic compounds.
  230. _____ is an activator or component (cofactor) of many enzymes. Super oxide dismutase, auxin IAA metabolism, and the synthesis of tryptophan (precursor to IAA).
  231. _____ deficiency symptoms includes shortened internodes and smaller than normal leaves (little-leaf in fruit trees)