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science specifically concerned with the mental processes and behavioral characteristics of people.
psychology 2 main goals
- build a body of knowledge about people.
- take that body of knowledge and apply it to intervene in people's lives, to make those lives better.
- testing theories in people of differing cultural backgrounds.
- tests the cultural parameters of psychological knowledge.
- comparing data obtaine across those cultures.
- examine whether or not behaviors from one culture may or may not hoolod for people from other cultures.
- understanding principles about human behaviors within a global perspective.
principles about human behavior may be
true for all people of all cultures.
true for some people of some cultures.
- product of the interaction between universal biological needs and functions, universal social problems created to address those needs, and the context in which people live.
- descriptive: highlight different types of activities or behaviors associated with a culture.
- historical: heritage and tradition associated with a group of people.
- normative: rules and norms associated with a culture.
- psychological: emphasize learning, problem solving, and other behavioral approaches associated with culture.
- structural: emphasize the societal or organizational elements of a culture.
- genetic: refer to the origins of a culture.
unique meaning and information system, shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-bieng, and derive meaning from life.
society vs culture
- society: refers to the fact that relationships among individuals exist, individuals havfe multiple relationships with multiple groups, and the groups themselves have interrelationships with other groups.
- culture refers to the meanings and infromation that are associated with social networks.
a person's country of origin.
factors that influence culture
- sociocultural history.
- economica base.
- aggregate personality traits.
- denote one's racial, national, or cultural origins.
- used in reference to groups characterized by a common nationality, geographic origin, culture or language.
key aspects of ethnicity
- cultural normas and values.
- the strength, salience, and meaning of ethnic identity.
- attitudes associated with minority status.
culture vs personality
- personality: refers to the individual difference that exist among individuals within groups. unique constellation of traits, attributes, qualities, adn characteristics of individuals within those frames.
- culture: social psychological frame within which individuals reside, much like the structure of our houses and homes.
culture vs popular culture
- popular culture: values or expressions that come and go as trends within a few years.
- culture: relatively stable over time and even across generations.
psychological processes--behaviors and mental processes.
culture is an adaptational response to 3 factors:
- social factors.
- biological factors.
inferences drawn about the reasons underlying other people's behavior.
refers to those processes that are consistent across different cultures.
those processes that are different across cultures; refers to culture-specific processes.
- studies that compare cultures on some psychological variable of interest.
- backbone of cross-cultural research.
- state or condition of similarity in conceptual meaning and empirical method between cultures that allows comparisons to be meaningful.
- means that if any aspect of a cross-cultural study is not entirely equal in meaning or method across the cultures being compared, tehn the comparison loses its meaning.
lack of equivalence.
whether the research protocols used in a cross-cultural study are semantically equivalent across the various languages included in the study.
involves taking the rearch protocol in one language, translating it to the other language(s), and having someone else translate it back to the original.
culture-specific meaning and connotations are gradually eliminated form the research protocols so that what remains is something that is the closest semantic equivalence in each language.
degree to which measure used to collect data in different cultures are equally valid and reliable.
whether a measure accurately measure what it is supposed to measure.
refers to how consistently a meaasure measures what it is supposed to measure.
the ways researchers conceptually define a variable and measure it.
degree to which different measures used in a cross-cultural comparison study are statiscally equivalent in teh cultures being compared--that is, whether the measures are equally valid and reliable in all cultures studied.
- technique used to examine the structure of a questionnaire.
- creates groups of items on a questionnaire based on how the respones to them are related to each other.
when using questionnaires across cultures, concern that arises whether the same groups of items, or factors, would emerge in the different cultures.
- assessed by examining whether the items on a questionnaire are all related to each other.
- if they are supposed to be measuring the same mental construct, then items should be realated to each other.
examine whether a measure of a psychological construct that was originally generated in a single culture is applicable, meanigful, and most importantly psychometrically equivalent (that is, equally reliable and valid) in another culture.
- refers to whether cross-cultural samples can be compared.
- concerned whether the samples are appropriate representatives of their culture.
measures whether the theoretical framework and hypotheses are equivalent across the participating cultures, the study may be maningful and relevant.
systematic tendency to respond in a certain way to items or scales.
socially desirable responding
- tendency to give answers that make oneself look good.
- 2 facets: self-deceptive enhancement and impression management.
tendency to agree rather than disagree with items on questionnaires.
extreme response bias
tendency to use the ends of a scale regardless of item content.
reference group effect
idea is based on the notion that people make implicit social comparisons with others when making ratings on scales, rather than relying on direct inferences about a private personal value system.
cause-effect vs correlational interpretation
- cultural groups are often treated as independent variables in research design and data analysis, making these sturdies a form of quasiexperimient.
- inferences drawn form them can only be correlational inferences.
nonreactive research vs. reactive research
- nonreactive: tries to obtain data without changing the way subjects would act normally.
- reactive: not limited to changes in behaviour in relation to being merely observed; it can also refer to situations where individuals alter their behavior to conform to the expectations of the observer.
- variables other than the independent variable that may bear any effect on the behavior of the subject being studied.
- only affects the people in the experiment, not the place the experiment is taking place in.
- examples are gender, ethnicity, social class, genetics, intelligence, age.
cultural attribution fallacies
occur when researchers claim that between-group differences are cultural wehn they really have no empirical justification to do so.
researchers inevitalbly interpreting the data they ogbtain through their own cultural filters, and these biases can affect their intrepretations to varying degrees.
dealing with nonequivalent data
- preclude comparison: not make a comparison in the first place.
- reduce the nonequivalence in the data: comparisons would then be based on the rescored items.
- interpret the nonequivalence: interpret the nonequivalence as an important piece of information concerning cultural differences.
- ignore the nonequivalence.
- learning not only from others but through others.
- young humans learn not only by mimicking adults, but also by internalizing the knowledge of another person through social cognition.
- culture must be learned through a prolonged process, over a considerable period of time, with much practice.
- process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of the society in which we live.
- involves learning and mastering societal norms, attitudes, values aned belief systems.
process by which youngsters learn and adopt the ways and manners of their culture.
socialization vs enculturation
- socialization: refers more to the actual process and mechanisms by which people learn the rules of sociaety--what is said to whom and in wich contexts.
- enculturation: refers to the products of the socialization process--the subjective, underlying, psychological aspects of culture that become internalized through development.
- people, institutions and organizations that exist to help ensure that socialization occurs.
- parents, siblings, extended families and peers.
- immediate surroundings.
- family, school, peer group, with which children directly interact.
- linkages between mircosystems.
- between school and family.
- context that indirectly affects children.
- parent's workplace.
culture, religion, society.
influence of time on the other systems.
expect unquestioned obedience and view the child as needing to be controlled.
warm and nurturing to their children; however, they allow their children to regulate their own lives and provide few firm guidelines.
sensitive to the child's maturity and are firm, fair and reasonable.
often too absorbed in their own lives to respond appropriately to their children and may seem indifferent to them.
process of adapating to, and in many cases adopting, a different culture from the one in which a person was enculturated.
congruent with developmental siblingsgoals dictated by culture.
- longest lasting relationship.
- integral part of social context in almost every culture.
- who is considered a sibling may differ across cultures.
sharing both biological parents.
sharing one biological parent.
sharing no biological parents.
- mother is still primary caregiver.
- children experience frequent interaction with fathers, grandparents, godparents, siblings and cousings.
- sharing households with relatives, is seen as a good way of maximizing the family's resources for successful child rearing.
- differ in their compositon.
- sharing of resources, emotional support, and caregiving.
biologically based style of interacting with the world that exists from birth.
very regular, adaptable, mildly intense style of behaviro that is positve and responsive.
intense, irregular, withdraiwng style generally marked by negative moods.
- infants need time to make transitions in activity and experiences.
- though they may withdraw initially or respond negatively, given time and support they will adapt and react positively.
goodness of fit
- interaction of a child's temperament with that of the parents.
- reaction to a child's temperament can promote stability or instability in the child's temperamental responses to the environment.
- parents' responses to the child's temperament may also affect subsequent attachement.
cultural differences concerning temperament
give us a clue to what kinds of personalities and behaviors are valued in a culture as an adult.
- have been found to be at risk for later behavior problems.
- in an extreme situation (life threatening drought) may be parotective, rather than a risk factors, imporoving the infant's chances of survival.
environmental and cultural pressures over generations
may have helped to produce minor biological differences in infants through a functionally adaptive process.
- refers to the special bond that develops between the infant and his/her primary caregiver.
- has lifelong effects on our relationships and provides emotional security.
Bowlby's Theory of Attachement
- infants must have a preprogrammed, biological basis for becoming attached to their caregivers.
- attachment relationship between caregiver and child fucntions as a survival strategy.
- 3 attachment styles: secure, ambivalent and avoidant. the latter two are labeled "insecurely attached"
will become distressed when their mother leaves them but are easily comforted by her when she returns.
will also experience some distress when their mother leaves them but when she returns they send mixed signals--they want to be comforted by her yet, at the same time, appear to have a difficult time letiing her soothe them.
do not seem to be distressed when their mother leaves and when she returns these infants will actively avoid reuniting with their mother and instead focus their attention elsewhere.
- of securely attached infants: described as sensitive, warm, and more positive in thier emotional expression.
- of ambivalent children: characterized as being insensitive and uninvolved.
cross-cultural validity of assessing attachment
- vast literature concerning attachment in different cultures suggest that attachment between infants and their caregivers is a universal phenomenon.
- there is also some evidence that the "secure" attachment relationship may be preferred in many differnet cultures.
- ongoing debate.
- viewing it as "adaptive" or "maladaptive" vs. "secure" and "insecure".
specialty in psychology that studies how thiniking skills develop over time.
- swiss children.
- children solve problems quite differently at different ages.
- four stages: sensorimortor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operational.
- stages are universal.
- birth to 2yo.
- children understan the world through their sensory perceptions and motor behaviors.
- use mental symbols to represent objects and events.
- object permamence: knowing that objects exist even when they cannot be seen.
- 2 to 6-7 yo.
- 5 characteristics: conservation, centration, irreversibility, egocentrism, and animism.
- conservation: lack of awareness of how physical quanitites remain the same even when they change shape or appearance.
- centration: tendency to focus on a single aspect of a problem.
- irreversibility: inability to imagine "undoing" a process.
- egocentrism: inability to step into another's shoes and understand the other person's point of view.
- animism: belief that all things, including inanimate objects, are alive.
concrete operations stage--Piaget
- 6-7 to 11yo.
- children acquire new thinking skills to work with actual objects and events.
- imagine undoing an action, and they can focus on more than one feature of a problem. begin to understand that there are points of view different from their own.
- master the conservation principle.
formal operation stage--Piaget
- 11yo to adulthood.
- ability to think logically about abstract concepts.
mechanisms responsible for movent from one stage to the next
- assimilation: fitting new ideas into a preexisting understanding of the world.
- accomodation: process of changing one's understanding of hte world to accommodate ideas that conflict with existing concepts.
Kohlberg's Theory of Morality
- stages of development of moral reasoning skills.
- preconventional morality: involves compliance with rules to avoid punishment and gain rewards.
- conventional morality: involves conformity to rules that are defined by other's approval or society's rules.
- postconventional morality: involves moral reasoning on the basis of individual principles and conscience.