MICRO Lec32 LO.txt

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karennnb
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13649
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MICRO Lec32 LO.txt
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2010-04-08 21:40:21
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microbiology lecture 32 learning objectives
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lecture 32 learning objectives
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  1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae do not have a ___
    Cell wall
  2. Mycoplasmal pneumonia use __ from host in membrane
    Sterols
  3. Mycoplasmal pneumonia have a very simple __, with only a few hundred genes
    Genome
  4. The ___ of Mycoplasmal pneumonia is small
    Infectious dose
  5. Mycoplasmal pneumonia have an ___ protein that binds to the host cell
    Adhesion
  6. Mycoplasmal pneumonia bind to host, but are not __
    Internalized
  7. The adhesion protein of the Mycoplasmal pneumonia binds to the __ cells of the lungs
    Epithelial
  8. Mycoplasmal pneumonia secretes __ to damage host cell
    H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide radical)
  9. __ cant be used to treat Mycoplasmal pneumonia because they don�t have a cell wall
    beta lactams
  10. Mycoplasmal pneumonia is different from typical pneumonia because ___
    Symptoms are mild/don�t need to be treated
  11. A common name for pertussis is ___
    Whooping cough
  12. ___ is caused by violent paroxysms of coughing
    pertussis
  13. pertussis is typically a __ disease
    childhood
  14. whooping cough is usually just a __ in adults
    chronic cold
  15. pertussis is more serious in kids because ___
    their airways are smaller
  16. ___ pertussis causes whooping cough
    bordetella
  17. bordetella toxin is an __ toxin
    AB6
  18. Whooping cough incidences are increasing because adults with overlooked infections are spreading it to __
    Kids
  19. ADP-ribosylates in pertussis is from the (A/B) part of the toxin
    A
  20. ADP-ribosylates inhibits __ synthesis
    cAMP
  21. ADP-ribosylate �___ the inhibitor�
    Inhibits
  22. Because ADP-ribosylate is a large functional group, it ___ camp
    Inactivates
  23. DTaP stands for __
    Diptheria tetanus acelluar pertussis
  24. To treat whooping cough, the DTaP vaccine is given __ times
    5
  25. DTaP is an __ subunit vaccine
    Acellular
  26. What is the difference between DPT and DTaP
    DPT is a whole cell vaccine, DTaP is acellular
  27. DTaP is acellular because it only contains a single __ instead of the whole cell
    PAMP
  28. DPT was changed to DTaP because __
    In a few cases, some people were allergic to the DPT vaccine
  29. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has an __ cell wall
    Acid-fast
  30. Because myco.tuberculosis grows very slowly, it is hard to treat with __
    Antibiotics
  31. Antibiotics usually inhibit cell growth. However, antibiotics are usually ineffective against __ because of its slow growth
  32. Fatigue, fever, weight loss, cough with blood-tinged sputum are associated with __
    Tuberculosis
  33. 90-95% of people infected with tuberculosis usually __
    heal
  34. in ___ people, tuberculosis can necrotize the lungs
    immunocompromised
  35. in tuberculosis, an __ lesion causes edema, inflammation, and PMNLs
    exudative
  36. in tuberculosis, a __ lesion produces granulomas
    productive
  37. Granulomas (from tuberculosis) can spread by __ and __, or __
    Lymph and bronchi, blood
  38. Granulomas that spread by the blood to liver, bone marrow, and lungs are called __ tuberculosis
    Military
  39. Disseminated tuberculosis spreads by __
    Blood
  40. Encaused granulomas in tuberculosis are prone to __ later one
    Reactivation
  41. Encased granulomas may later reactivate and fibrinate the __
    Lungs
  42. Tuberculosis survives in macrophages by __
    Preventing phagolysosome fusion
  43. ___ always spread person-to-person via respiratory droplets
    tuberculosis
  44. tuberculosis is a major infectious disease because 95% of the cases are __
    asymptomatic
  45. chemotherapy is done to treat __
    tuberculosis
  46. isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are used together to treat __
    tuberculosis
  47. treatment for __ lasts a long time (6-9mo)
    tuberculosis
  48. tuberculosis medicines prevent __ synthesis
    mycolic acid
  49. DOT (for tuberculosis) stands for
    Directly observed therapy
  50. MDR is __ and XDR is __
    Drug resistance: multiple and extreme
  51. A BCG vaccine is used worldwide (except for US) to test for ___
    Tuberculosis
  52. In a positive BCG test, a type __ HS reaction is observed
    IV
  53. __ is an orthomyxovirus
    influenza A
  54. ___ is an enveloped, ssRNA that has 8 sengments
    influenze A
  55. because influenza A has 8 segments, there can be variation by __
    recombination
  56. flu is a __ virus, but it also affects __ and __
    bird, humans, pigs
  57. __ has 2 envelope proteins called hemagglutinin and neuraminidase
    influenza A
  58. influenza A�s 2 envelope viruses are __ and __
    hemagglutinin and neuraminidase
  59. Hemagglutinin allows __
    Binding
  60. ___ allows release of the influenza A virus
    neuraminidase
  61. influenza A is spread by _
    respiratory droplets
  62. because H and N proteins can change, ___ drift and shift can occur in influenza A virus
    antigenic
  63. antigenic drigt is a minor change because ___
    flu is an RNA virus with no proofreading
  64. antigenic shift is a major change because ___
    RNA segments can reassort in an alternate host
  65. Because influenza A is segmented, it can reassort in __ hosts
    Alternate
  66. Antigenic shift is based on ___
    Genetic recombination
  67. Influenza can cause a ____ when a new virus that no one has immunity to is formed (during antigenic shift)
    Pandemic
  68. What are 3 major pandemics of influenza in the past 100 years? (H?N?, name)
    (1)H1N1, Spanish. (2)H2N2, Asian. (3)H3N2, Hong Kong.
  69. The differences in the 3 major influenza pandemics are called antigenic __
    Shifts
  70. Amantadine and oseltamivir treat __
    Flu
  71. Amantadine blocks __ and __
    Binding of hemagglutinin, virus uncoating
  72. In pneumonia, what prevents neuraminidase from functioning
    Oseltamivir
  73. For the flu, there are __ vaccines prepared
    Annual
  74. What are the 2 types of vaccines for flu
    Injected and nasal spray
  75. �Flu-Mist� is a live, ___, nasal spray for influenza
    attenuated
  76. for influenza, injected vaccine contains __ and the nasal spray has __
    IgG, IgA
  77. Epidimiologists have determined a __ of transmission for flu, allowing them to guess what virus will cause next years flue
    Pattern
  78. ___ viral types are included in each flu vaccine
    multiple
  79. __ is the #1 cause of lower respiratory infection in infants
    respiratory syncytial virus
  80. like measles, syncytial virus is a __
    paramyxovirus
  81. syncytial virus binds to the LRT epithelium and causes __
    sloughing off of bronchiole lining
  82. a syncytia allows virus to avoid exposure to the __
    humoral immune response
  83. a syncytia is the __ of epithelial cells
    fusion
  84. there is no vaccine, treatment, or lasting immunity for __
    syncytial virus
  85. �Sin Nombre� is also called __
    hantavirus
  86. __ is a bunyavirus that�s enveloped has has ssRNA in 3 segments
    hantavirus
  87. hantavirus can be contracted through ___ from infected rodents
    dust aerosols
  88. fever, muscle aches, nausea, loss of lung function, shock, and death are complications of ___
    hantavirus
  89. hantavirus affects cells around __, causing ___ to leak out into lungs
    alveolar capillaries, fluid
  90. hantavirus is most prevalent in __
    SW USA
  91. Coccidioides immitis is a ___ that causes ___
    Mold, coccidiodomycosis
  92. Coccidioidomycosis has 2 spore types: ___ and __
    Arthrospores and endospores
  93. Arthrospores develop into __ and eventually into endospores
    Spherules
  94. Endospores are engulfed by ___ and form a ___
    Macrophage, granuloma
  95. Coccidiodomycosis mostly affects people who are __
    Immunocompromised
  96. The organisms in the granulomas formed from coccidioidomycosis break out and migrate preferentially to the __
    Head
  97. Histoplasmosis is caused by a __ that grows in __
    Fungus, soils
  98. Histoplasmosis is caused by __
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  99. An organism in the shape of a �captains wheel� is characteristic of __
    Histoplasmosis
  100. The __ form of histoplasma has knobby spores
    Mold
  101. In histoplasmosis, __ are inhaled and then develop into __
    Spores, yeast
  102. Yeast, enter and can survive in __
    Macrophages
  103. In ___, yeast enter macrophages and cause granulomas to form
    Histoplasmosis
  104. Histoplasmosis granulomas are not distinguishable from ___ granulomas on an x-ray
    Tuberculosis
  105. Histoplasmosis is most prevalent in __
    Southern IN
  106. Amphotericin and azoles treat __
    Histoplasmosis
  107. Medicines that treat histoplasmosis, like __ and __ have many side effects
    Amphotericin, azoles

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