exam1chapt 4

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exam1chapt 4
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  1. peptidoglycan
    cell wall found in bacteria not found in archaea

    helps determine the shape

    consists of long glycan chains cross-linked by short peptide fragments
  2. prokaryotic cell has
    • appendages:
    • flagella,pilli. fimbriae
    • Glycocalyx:
    • capsule, slime layer
    • Cell envelope:
    • cell wall, cell membrane
    • internal:
    • cytoplasm, ribosomes ,inclusions,nucleoid, actin cytoskeleton, endospore
  3. all bacteriacells have
    • cell membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • ribosomes
    • at least one chromosomes
  4. glycocalyx
    a coating or layer of molecules external to the cell wall. It serves protective, adhesive,and receptor functions. it may fit tightly or be very loose and diffuse
  5. bacterial chromosome or nucleoid
    Composed of condensed DNA molecules. DNA directs all genectic and heredity of the cell and codes for all protein
  6. plasmid
    double-stranded DNA circle containing extra genes
  7. pilus
    • an elongate,hollow appendage used in transfer of DNA to other cells.
    • mating
  8. Ribosomes
    Tiny particles composed of protien and RNA that are the sites of protein synthesis
  9. actin cytoskeleton
    long fibers of protien that encircle the cell just inside the cell membrane and contribute to the shape of the cell
  10. flagellum
    specialized appendages attached to the cell by a basal body that holds a long, rotating filament, The movement pushes the cell forward and provides motility
  11. fimbriae
    fine hairlike bristle extending from the cell surface that help in adhesion to other cells and surfaces
  12. inclusion/Granule
    stored nutrients such as fat, phosphate,or glycogen deposited in dense crystals or particles that can be tapped into when needed
  13. cell wall
    a semirigid caseing that provides structural support and shape for the cell
  14. cell membrane
    a thinsheet of lipid and protein that surrounds the cytoplasm and controls the flow of materials into and out of the cell pool
  15. outer membrane
    extra membrane similar to cell membrane but also containing lipopoly saccharide. controls flow of materials and portions of it are toxic to mammals when released.
  16. Endospore
    dormant body formed within some bacteria that allows for their survival in adverse conditions

    extremly resistant stage
  17. cytoplasm
    water-based solution filling the entire cell
  18. flagella parts
    filament, hook and basal body
  19. polar arrangment
    flagella attached at one or both ends of the cell
  20. monotrichous
    single flagellum
  21. lophotrichous
    small bunches or tufts of flagella emerging from the same site
  22. amphitrichous
    flagella at both poles
  23. peritrichous
    dispearsed randomly over the structure of the cell
  24. chemotaxis and phototaxis
    • chemo- moving toward chemical
    • photo-moving away from chemical
  25. gram positive
    • have two layers
    • cell wall
    • cytplasmic membrane
  26. gram negative
    • outer membrane
    • cell wall
    • cytoplasmic membrane
  27. inclusion bodies
    serves as a storehouse when nutrients become depleted
  28. endospore-forming bacteria
    phase one- vegetative cell

    phase two endospore formation
  29. coccus
    roughly spherical
  30. bacillus
    rod-shaped
  31. coccobacillus
    short and plump
  32. vibrio
    gentle curve
  33. spirillum
    curviform OR SPIRAL SHAPED
  34. ARCHAEA
    THE OTHER PROKARYOTE

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